Alterations of redox homeostasis leads to a condition of resilience known as hormesis that is due to the activation of redox-sensitive pathways stimulating cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis. Instead, supraphysiological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds antioxidant defence and leads to oxidative distress. This condition induces damage to biomolecules and is responsible or co-responsible for the onset of several chronic pathologies. Thus, a dietary antioxidant supplementation has been proposed in order to prevent aging, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases as well as carcinogenesis. However, this approach has failed to demonstrate efficacy, often leading to harmful side effects, in particular in patients affected by cancer. In this latter case, an approach based on endogenous antioxidant depletion, leading to ROS overproduction, has shown an interesting potential for enhancing susceptibility of patients to anticancer therapies. Therefore, a deep investigation of molecular pathways involved in redox balance is crucial in order to identify new molecular targets useful for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. The review herein provides an overview of the pathophysiological role of ROS and focuses the attention on positive and negative aspects of antioxidant modulation with the intent to find new insights for a successful clinical application.

Hormesis and Oxidative Distress: Pathophysiology of Reactive Oxygen Species and the Open Question of Antioxidant Modulation and Supplementation

Nitti, Mariapaola;Marengo, Barbara;Furfaro, Anna Lisa;Pronzato, Maria Adelaide;Marinari, Umberto Maria;Domenicotti, Cinzia;Traverso, Nicola
2022-01-01

Abstract

Alterations of redox homeostasis leads to a condition of resilience known as hormesis that is due to the activation of redox-sensitive pathways stimulating cell proliferation, growth, differentiation, and angiogenesis. Instead, supraphysiological production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) exceeds antioxidant defence and leads to oxidative distress. This condition induces damage to biomolecules and is responsible or co-responsible for the onset of several chronic pathologies. Thus, a dietary antioxidant supplementation has been proposed in order to prevent aging, cardiovascular and degenerative diseases as well as carcinogenesis. However, this approach has failed to demonstrate efficacy, often leading to harmful side effects, in particular in patients affected by cancer. In this latter case, an approach based on endogenous antioxidant depletion, leading to ROS overproduction, has shown an interesting potential for enhancing susceptibility of patients to anticancer therapies. Therefore, a deep investigation of molecular pathways involved in redox balance is crucial in order to identify new molecular targets useful for the development of more effective therapeutic approaches. The review herein provides an overview of the pathophysiological role of ROS and focuses the attention on positive and negative aspects of antioxidant modulation with the intent to find new insights for a successful clinical application.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1094996
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