Deep learning (DL) is currently the dominant approach to image classification and segmentation, but the performances of DL methods are remarkably influenced by the quantity and quality of the ground truth (GT) used for training. In this article, a DL method is presented to deal with the semantic segmentation of very-high-resolution (VHR) remote-sensing data in the case of scarce GT. The main idea is to combine a specific type of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), namely fully convolutional networks (FCNs), with probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). Our method takes advantage of the intrinsic multiscale behavior of FCNs to deal with multiscale data representations and to connect them to a hierarchical Markov model (e.g., making use of a quadtree). As a consequence, the spatial information present in the data is better exploited, allowing a reduced sensitivity to GT incompleteness to be obtained. The marginal posterior mode (MPM) criterion is used for inference in the proposed framework. To assess the capabilities of the proposed method, the experimental validation is conducted with the ISPRS 2D Semantic Labeling Challenge datasets on the cities of Vaihingen and Potsdam, with some modifications to simulate the spatially sparse GTs that are common in real remote-sensing applications. The results are quite significant, as the proposed approach exhibits a higher producer accuracy than the standard FCNs considered and especially mitigates the impact of scarce GTs on minority classes and small spatial details.

Semantic Segmentation of Remote-Sensing Images Through Fully Convolutional Neural Networks and Hierarchical Probabilistic Graphical Models

Pastorino M.;Moser G.;Serpico S. B.;Zerubia J.
2022-01-01

Abstract

Deep learning (DL) is currently the dominant approach to image classification and segmentation, but the performances of DL methods are remarkably influenced by the quantity and quality of the ground truth (GT) used for training. In this article, a DL method is presented to deal with the semantic segmentation of very-high-resolution (VHR) remote-sensing data in the case of scarce GT. The main idea is to combine a specific type of deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs), namely fully convolutional networks (FCNs), with probabilistic graphical models (PGMs). Our method takes advantage of the intrinsic multiscale behavior of FCNs to deal with multiscale data representations and to connect them to a hierarchical Markov model (e.g., making use of a quadtree). As a consequence, the spatial information present in the data is better exploited, allowing a reduced sensitivity to GT incompleteness to be obtained. The marginal posterior mode (MPM) criterion is used for inference in the proposed framework. To assess the capabilities of the proposed method, the experimental validation is conducted with the ISPRS 2D Semantic Labeling Challenge datasets on the cities of Vaihingen and Potsdam, with some modifications to simulate the spatially sparse GTs that are common in real remote-sensing applications. The results are quite significant, as the proposed approach exhibits a higher producer accuracy than the standard FCNs considered and especially mitigates the impact of scarce GTs on minority classes and small spatial details.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1093200
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