Mechanical ventilation is a life-support system used to ensure blood gas exchange and to assist the respiratory muscles in ventilating the lung during the acute phase of lung disease or following surgery. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation differs considerably from normal physiologic breathing. This may lead to several negative physiological consequences, both on the lungs and on peripheral organs. First, hemodynamic changes can affect cardiovascular performance, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and drainage of renal veins. Second, the negative effect of mechanical ventilation (compression stress) on the alveolar-capillary membrane and extracellular matrix may cause local and systemic inflammation, promoting lung and peripheral-organ injury. Third, intra-abdominal hypertension may further impair lung and peripheral-organ function during controlled and assisted ventilation. Mechanical ventilation should be optimized and personalized in each patient according to individual clinical needs. Multiple parameters must be adjusted appropriately to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), including: inspiratory stress (the respiratory system inspiratory plateau pressure); dynamic strain (the ratio between tidal volume and the end-expiratory lung volume, or inspiratory capacity); static strain (the end-expiratory lung volume determined by positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]); driving pressure (the difference between the respiratory system inspiratory plateau pressure and PEEP); and mechanical power (the amount of mechanical energy imparted as a function of respiratory rate). More recently, patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) has been proposed as a potential mechanism promoting VILI. In the present chapter, we will discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of mechanical ventilation and how to personalize mechanical ventilation parameters.

Physiological and Pathophysiological Consequences of Mechanical Ventilation

Ball L.;Pelosi P.
2022

Abstract

Mechanical ventilation is a life-support system used to ensure blood gas exchange and to assist the respiratory muscles in ventilating the lung during the acute phase of lung disease or following surgery. Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation differs considerably from normal physiologic breathing. This may lead to several negative physiological consequences, both on the lungs and on peripheral organs. First, hemodynamic changes can affect cardiovascular performance, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and drainage of renal veins. Second, the negative effect of mechanical ventilation (compression stress) on the alveolar-capillary membrane and extracellular matrix may cause local and systemic inflammation, promoting lung and peripheral-organ injury. Third, intra-abdominal hypertension may further impair lung and peripheral-organ function during controlled and assisted ventilation. Mechanical ventilation should be optimized and personalized in each patient according to individual clinical needs. Multiple parameters must be adjusted appropriately to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), including: inspiratory stress (the respiratory system inspiratory plateau pressure); dynamic strain (the ratio between tidal volume and the end-expiratory lung volume, or inspiratory capacity); static strain (the end-expiratory lung volume determined by positive end-expiratory pressure [PEEP]); driving pressure (the difference between the respiratory system inspiratory plateau pressure and PEEP); and mechanical power (the amount of mechanical energy imparted as a function of respiratory rate). More recently, patient self-inflicted lung injury (P-SILI) has been proposed as a potential mechanism promoting VILI. In the present chapter, we will discuss the physiological and pathophysiological consequences of mechanical ventilation and how to personalize mechanical ventilation parameters.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1088710
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