The Italian Cancer Registry Association has estimated that for the five-year period 2016-2020, in line with the previous five years, approximately 7000 neoplasms have been diagnosed among children and 4000 among adolescents. Leukemias, brain tumors and lymphomas together account for more than two-thirds of all pediatric cancers. Fortunately, the five-years survival rate has progressively improved reaching 80% thanks to the continuing improvement of therapeutic protocols but most of these cancer survivors will have at least one chronic health condition by 40 years of age. Long-term complications concern various organs and systems and have a multifactorial etiopathogenesis. Obesity, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome represent chronic diseases that affect life expectancy. cardiovascular risk partly linked to therapies and genetic susceptibility and partly linked to the presence of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome predispose childhood cancer survivors to heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular disease, arrhythmia. Hence the cardio- metabolic risk of childhood cancer survivors can have a significant impact on their lives, families, and on society at-large. Therefore, it is very important to know the risk factors that predispose to the development of cardio-metabolic pathologies in childhood cancer survivors, the possible primary and secondary prevention strategies, the methods of surveillance and the therapeutic approaches.
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