The COVID-19 infection has emerged as a disruptive pandemic at worldwide level. The study of the mechanism of contagion is one of the greatest challenges before a mass vaccination campaign that would protect populations. The study can support the development of knowledge and tools to develop possible strategies for containing its spread in future events. The saliva droplet aerosol expelled during breathing or coughing is the main cause for the propagation of the SARS-Cov-2. In this work, a URANS CFD approach was used to simulate the dispersion from the mouth of these particles in closed environments. The air conditioning system was considered. The conditions were varied to determine their impact on the diffusion of the aerosol. Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical approaches were used to model the coughing and the breathing events. These were validated with the puff theory, numerical and experimental results. A realistic case of a meeting room with two persons was simulated. Different characteristics of the expulsed aerosols and different ventilation system configurations were considered to demonstrate how these simulations can support management strategies for indoor occupation. Finally, the effect of the protective mask was introduced to quantify its beneficial effects to support safe indoor occupation.

Simulation of COVID-19 indoor emissions from coughing and breathing with air conditioning and mask protection effects

Cravero C.;Marsano D.
2021

Abstract

The COVID-19 infection has emerged as a disruptive pandemic at worldwide level. The study of the mechanism of contagion is one of the greatest challenges before a mass vaccination campaign that would protect populations. The study can support the development of knowledge and tools to develop possible strategies for containing its spread in future events. The saliva droplet aerosol expelled during breathing or coughing is the main cause for the propagation of the SARS-Cov-2. In this work, a URANS CFD approach was used to simulate the dispersion from the mouth of these particles in closed environments. The air conditioning system was considered. The conditions were varied to determine their impact on the diffusion of the aerosol. Lagrangian and Eulerian numerical approaches were used to model the coughing and the breathing events. These were validated with the puff theory, numerical and experimental results. A realistic case of a meeting room with two persons was simulated. Different characteristics of the expulsed aerosols and different ventilation system configurations were considered to demonstrate how these simulations can support management strategies for indoor occupation. Finally, the effect of the protective mask was introduced to quantify its beneficial effects to support safe indoor occupation.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1084949
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