Classical imitation learning methods suffer substantially from the learning hierarchical policies when the imitative agent faces an unobserved state by the expert agent. To address these drawbacks, we propose an online active learning through active inference approach that encodes the expert’s demonstrations based on observation-action to improve the learner’s future motion prediction. For this purpose, we provide a switching Dynamic Bayesian Network based on the dynamic interaction between the expert agent and another object in its surrounding as a reference model, which we exploit to initialize an incremental probabilistic learning model. This learning model grows and matures based on the free-energy formulation and message passing of active inference dynamically at discrete and continuous levels in an online active learning phase. In this scheme, generalized states of the learning world are represented as distance-vector, where it is the learner’s observation concerning its interaction with a moving object. Considering the distance vector entail intentions, it enables action prediction evaluation in a prospective sense. We illustrate these points using simulations of driving intelligent agents. The learning agent is trained by using long-term predictions from the generative learning model to reproduce the expert’s motion while learning how to select a suitable action through new experiences. Our results affirm that a Dynamic Bayesian optimal approach provides a principled framework and outperforms conventional reinforcement learning methods. Furthermore, it endorses the general formulation of action prediction as active inference.

Active Inference Integrated with Imitation Learning for Autonomous Driving

Nozari S.;Krayani A.;Marcenaro L.;Regazzoni C.
2022

Abstract

Classical imitation learning methods suffer substantially from the learning hierarchical policies when the imitative agent faces an unobserved state by the expert agent. To address these drawbacks, we propose an online active learning through active inference approach that encodes the expert’s demonstrations based on observation-action to improve the learner’s future motion prediction. For this purpose, we provide a switching Dynamic Bayesian Network based on the dynamic interaction between the expert agent and another object in its surrounding as a reference model, which we exploit to initialize an incremental probabilistic learning model. This learning model grows and matures based on the free-energy formulation and message passing of active inference dynamically at discrete and continuous levels in an online active learning phase. In this scheme, generalized states of the learning world are represented as distance-vector, where it is the learner’s observation concerning its interaction with a moving object. Considering the distance vector entail intentions, it enables action prediction evaluation in a prospective sense. We illustrate these points using simulations of driving intelligent agents. The learning agent is trained by using long-term predictions from the generative learning model to reproduce the expert’s motion while learning how to select a suitable action through new experiences. Our results affirm that a Dynamic Bayesian optimal approach provides a principled framework and outperforms conventional reinforcement learning methods. Furthermore, it endorses the general formulation of action prediction as active inference.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1082990
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