In the expanding world of cardiovascular diseases, rapidly reaching pandemic proportions, the main focus is still on coronary atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. However, at least in the Western world, middle-aged male patients with acute myocardial infarction are no more the rule. Due to a higher life expectancy and major medical advances, physicians are to treat older and frailer individuals, usually with multiple comorbidities. In this context, myocardial ischaemia and infarction frequently result from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand—i.e., type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), according to the current universal definition—rather than coronary atherothrombosis. Moreover, the increasing use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays has led to a heightened detection of T2MI—often causing relatively little myocardial injury—, which seems to have doubled its numbers in recent years. Nevertheless, owing to its multifaceted pathophysiology and clinical presentation, T2MI is still underdiagnosed. Perhaps more importantly, T2MI is also victim of undertreatment, as drugs that constitute the cornerstone of therapy in most cardiovascular diseases are much more unlikely to be prescribed in T2MI than in coronary atherothrombosis. In this paper, we review the recent literature on the classification, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of T2MI, trying to summarise the state-of-the-art knowledge about this increasingly important pathologic condition. Finally, based on the current scientific evidence, we also propose an algorithm that may be easily utilised in clinical practice, in order to improve T2MI diagnosis and risk stratification.

Type 2 myocardial infarction: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in contemporary cardiology

Merlo A. C.;Ameri P.;Porto I.
2022

Abstract

In the expanding world of cardiovascular diseases, rapidly reaching pandemic proportions, the main focus is still on coronary atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. However, at least in the Western world, middle-aged male patients with acute myocardial infarction are no more the rule. Due to a higher life expectancy and major medical advances, physicians are to treat older and frailer individuals, usually with multiple comorbidities. In this context, myocardial ischaemia and infarction frequently result from an imbalance between myocardial oxygen supply and demand—i.e., type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI), according to the current universal definition—rather than coronary atherothrombosis. Moreover, the increasing use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays has led to a heightened detection of T2MI—often causing relatively little myocardial injury—, which seems to have doubled its numbers in recent years. Nevertheless, owing to its multifaceted pathophysiology and clinical presentation, T2MI is still underdiagnosed. Perhaps more importantly, T2MI is also victim of undertreatment, as drugs that constitute the cornerstone of therapy in most cardiovascular diseases are much more unlikely to be prescribed in T2MI than in coronary atherothrombosis. In this paper, we review the recent literature on the classification, pathophysiology, epidemiology, and management of T2MI, trying to summarise the state-of-the-art knowledge about this increasingly important pathologic condition. Finally, based on the current scientific evidence, we also propose an algorithm that may be easily utilised in clinical practice, in order to improve T2MI diagnosis and risk stratification.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1077552
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