Introduction The role of sex compared to comorbidities and other prognostic variables in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unclear. Methods This is a retrospective observational study on patients with COVID-19 infection, referred to 13 cardiology units. The primary objective was to assess the difference in risk of death between the sexes. The secondary objective was to explore sex-based heterogeneity in the association between demographic, clinical and laboratory variables, and patients' risk of death. Results Seven hundred and one patients were included: 214 (30.5%) women and 487 (69.5%) men. During a median follow-up of 15 days, deaths occurred in 39 (18.2%) women and 126 (25.9%) men. In a multivariable Cox regression model, men had a nonsignificantly higher risk of death vs. women (P = 0.07). The risk of death was more than double in men with a low lymphocytes count as compared with men with a high lymphocytes count [overall survival hazard ratio (OS-HR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.81]. In contrast, lymphocytes count was not related to death in women (P = 0.03). Platelets count was associated with better outcome in men (OS-HR for increase of 50 x 10(3) units: 0.88 95% CI 0.78-1.00) but not in women. The strength of association between higher PaO2/FiO(2) ratio and lower risk of death was larger in women (OS-HR for increase of 50 mmHg/%: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89) vs. men (OS-HR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98; P = 0.05). Conclusions Patients' sex is a relevant variable that should be taken into account when evaluating risk of death from COVID-19. There is a sex-based heterogeneity in the association between baseline variables and patients' risk of death.

Sex-related differences in patients with coronavirus disease 2019: results of the Cardio-COVID-Italy multicentre study

Porto, Italo;Ameri, Pietro;Canale, Claudia;Giovinazzo, Stefano;Pozzi, Andrea;Metra, Marco
2022

Abstract

Introduction The role of sex compared to comorbidities and other prognostic variables in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is unclear. Methods This is a retrospective observational study on patients with COVID-19 infection, referred to 13 cardiology units. The primary objective was to assess the difference in risk of death between the sexes. The secondary objective was to explore sex-based heterogeneity in the association between demographic, clinical and laboratory variables, and patients' risk of death. Results Seven hundred and one patients were included: 214 (30.5%) women and 487 (69.5%) men. During a median follow-up of 15 days, deaths occurred in 39 (18.2%) women and 126 (25.9%) men. In a multivariable Cox regression model, men had a nonsignificantly higher risk of death vs. women (P = 0.07). The risk of death was more than double in men with a low lymphocytes count as compared with men with a high lymphocytes count [overall survival hazard ratio (OS-HR) 2.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.81]. In contrast, lymphocytes count was not related to death in women (P = 0.03). Platelets count was associated with better outcome in men (OS-HR for increase of 50 x 10(3) units: 0.88 95% CI 0.78-1.00) but not in women. The strength of association between higher PaO2/FiO(2) ratio and lower risk of death was larger in women (OS-HR for increase of 50 mmHg/%: 0.72, 95% CI 0.59-0.89) vs. men (OS-HR: 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.98; P = 0.05). Conclusions Patients' sex is a relevant variable that should be taken into account when evaluating risk of death from COVID-19. There is a sex-based heterogeneity in the association between baseline variables and patients' risk of death.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1077542
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