Background: Following the availability of new drugs for chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), we sought to provide an updated and comparative synthesis of the evidence on HFrEF pharmacotherapy efficacy. Methods: We performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis of phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of medical therapy in HFrEF patient cohorts with more than 90% of the participants with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% and all-cause mortality reported. Results: Sixty-nine RCTs, accounting for 91741 subjects, were evaluated. The step-wise introduction of new drugs progressively decreased the risk of all-cause death, up to reaching a random-effects hazard ratio (HR) of 0.43 (95% credible intervals, CrI: 0.27-0.63) with beta blockers (BB), ACE-inhibitors (ACEi), and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRA), versus placebo. The risk was further reduced by adding sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i; HR 0.38, 95%CrI 0.22-0.60), ivabradine (HR 0.39, 95%CrI 0.21-0.64), or vericiguat (HR 0.40, 95%CrI 0.22-0.65) to neurohormonal inhibitors, and by angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), BB, and MRA (HR 0.36, 95%CrI 0.20-0.60). In a sensitivity analysis considering the ARNI and no-ARNI subgroups of SGLT2i RCTs, the combination SGLT2i+ARNI+BB+MRA was associated with the lowest HR (0.28, 95%CrI 0.16-0.45; vs. 0.40, 95%CrI 0.24-0.60 for SGLT2i+BB+ACEi+MRA). Consistent results were obtained in sensitivity analyses and by calculating Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking Area, as well as for cardiovascular mortality (information available for 56 RCTs), HF hospitalization (45 RCTs), and all-cause hospitalization (26 RCTs). Conclusions: Combination medical therapy including neurohormonal inhibitors and newer drugs, especially ARNI and SGLT2i, confers the maximum benefit with regard to HFrEF prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Network meta-analysis of medical therapy efficacy in more than 90000 patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

De Marzo, Vincenzo;Hassan, Sofia;Porto, Italo;Ameri, Pietro
2022

Abstract

Background: Following the availability of new drugs for chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), we sought to provide an updated and comparative synthesis of the evidence on HFrEF pharmacotherapy efficacy. Methods: We performed a Bayesian network meta-analysis of phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of medical therapy in HFrEF patient cohorts with more than 90% of the participants with left ventricular ejection fraction less than 45% and all-cause mortality reported. Results: Sixty-nine RCTs, accounting for 91741 subjects, were evaluated. The step-wise introduction of new drugs progressively decreased the risk of all-cause death, up to reaching a random-effects hazard ratio (HR) of 0.43 (95% credible intervals, CrI: 0.27-0.63) with beta blockers (BB), ACE-inhibitors (ACEi), and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRA), versus placebo. The risk was further reduced by adding sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i; HR 0.38, 95%CrI 0.22-0.60), ivabradine (HR 0.39, 95%CrI 0.21-0.64), or vericiguat (HR 0.40, 95%CrI 0.22-0.65) to neurohormonal inhibitors, and by angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI), BB, and MRA (HR 0.36, 95%CrI 0.20-0.60). In a sensitivity analysis considering the ARNI and no-ARNI subgroups of SGLT2i RCTs, the combination SGLT2i+ARNI+BB+MRA was associated with the lowest HR (0.28, 95%CrI 0.16-0.45; vs. 0.40, 95%CrI 0.24-0.60 for SGLT2i+BB+ACEi+MRA). Consistent results were obtained in sensitivity analyses and by calculating Surface Under the Cumulative Ranking Area, as well as for cardiovascular mortality (information available for 56 RCTs), HF hospitalization (45 RCTs), and all-cause hospitalization (26 RCTs). Conclusions: Combination medical therapy including neurohormonal inhibitors and newer drugs, especially ARNI and SGLT2i, confers the maximum benefit with regard to HFrEF prognosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1077540
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