This paper continues the application of circuit theory to experimental design started by the first two authors. The theory gives a very special and detailed representation of the kernel of the design model matrix named circuit basis. This representation turns out to be an appropriate way to study the optimality criteria referred to as robustness: the sensitivity of the design to the removal of design points. Exploiting the combinatorial properties of the circuit basis, we show that high values of robustness are obtained by avoiding small circuits. Many examples are given, from classical combinatorial designs to two-level factorial designs including interactions. The complexity of the circuit representations is useful because the large range of options they offer, but conversely requires the use of dedicated software. Suggestions for speed improvement are made.
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