Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infection outbreaks are difficult to control and sometimes require cohorting of CRAB-positive patients or temporary ward closure for environmental cleaning. We aimed at controlling the deadly 2018 CRAB outbreak in a 12 bed- intensive care unit (ICU) including 9 beds in a 220 m2 open space. We implemented a new multimodal approach without ward closure, cohorting or temporarily limiting admissions. Methods: A five-component bundle was introduced in 2018 including reinforcement of hand hygiene and sample extension of screening, application of contact precautions to all patients, enhanced environmental sampling and the one-time application of a cycling radical environmental cleaning and disinfection procedure of the entire ICU. The ICU-CRAB incidence density (ID), ICU alcohol-based hand rub consumption and antibiotic use were calculated over a period of 6 years and intervention time series analysis was performed. Whole genome sequencing analysis (WGS) was done on clinical and environmental isolates in the study period. Results: From January 2013, nosocomial ICU-CRAB ID decreased from 30.4 CRAB cases per 1000 patients-days to zero cases per 1000 patients-days. Our intervention showed a significant impact (-2.9 nosocomial ICU-CRAB cases per 1000 bed-days), while no influence was observed for antibiotic and alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) consumption. WGS demonstrated that CRAB strains were clonally related to an environmental reservoir which confirms the primary role of the environment in CRAB ICU spreading. Conclusion: A five-component bundle of continuous hand hygiene improvement, extended sampling at screening including the environment, universal contact precautions and a novel cycling radical environmental cleaning and disinfection procedure proved to be effective for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading within the ICU. Cohorting, admission restriction or ICU closure were avoided.

A five-component infection control bundle to permanently eliminate a carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii spreading in an intensive care unit

Di Pilato V.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background: Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infection outbreaks are difficult to control and sometimes require cohorting of CRAB-positive patients or temporary ward closure for environmental cleaning. We aimed at controlling the deadly 2018 CRAB outbreak in a 12 bed- intensive care unit (ICU) including 9 beds in a 220 m2 open space. We implemented a new multimodal approach without ward closure, cohorting or temporarily limiting admissions. Methods: A five-component bundle was introduced in 2018 including reinforcement of hand hygiene and sample extension of screening, application of contact precautions to all patients, enhanced environmental sampling and the one-time application of a cycling radical environmental cleaning and disinfection procedure of the entire ICU. The ICU-CRAB incidence density (ID), ICU alcohol-based hand rub consumption and antibiotic use were calculated over a period of 6 years and intervention time series analysis was performed. Whole genome sequencing analysis (WGS) was done on clinical and environmental isolates in the study period. Results: From January 2013, nosocomial ICU-CRAB ID decreased from 30.4 CRAB cases per 1000 patients-days to zero cases per 1000 patients-days. Our intervention showed a significant impact (-2.9 nosocomial ICU-CRAB cases per 1000 bed-days), while no influence was observed for antibiotic and alcohol-based hand rub (AHR) consumption. WGS demonstrated that CRAB strains were clonally related to an environmental reservoir which confirms the primary role of the environment in CRAB ICU spreading. Conclusion: A five-component bundle of continuous hand hygiene improvement, extended sampling at screening including the environment, universal contact precautions and a novel cycling radical environmental cleaning and disinfection procedure proved to be effective for permanently eliminating CRAB spreading within the ICU. Cohorting, admission restriction or ICU closure were avoided.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1075238
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