Fluorescence microscopy and derived techniques are continuously looking for photodetectors able to guarantee increased sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolution, and ease of integration into modern microscopy architectures. Recent advances in single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) fabricated with industry-standard microelectronic processes allow the development of new detection systems tailored to address the requirements of advanced imaging techniques (such as image-scanning microscopy). To this aim, we present the complete design and characterization of two bidimensional SPAD arrays composed of 25 fully independent and asynchronously operated pixels, both having fill factor of about 50% and specifically designed for being integrated into existing laser scanning microscopes. We used two different microelectronics technologies to fabricate our detectors: the first technology exhibiting very low noise (roughly 200 dark counts per second at room temperature) and the second one showing enhanced detection efficiency (more than 60% at a wavelength of 500 nm). Starting from the silicon-level device structures and moving towards the in-pixel and readout electronics description, we present performance assessments and comparisons between the two detectors. Images of a biological sample acquired after their integration into our custom image-scanning microscope finally demonstrate their exquisite on-field performance in terms of spatial resolution and contrast enhancement. We envisage that this work can trigger the development of a new class of SPAD-based detector arrays able to substitute the typical single-element sensor used in fluorescence laser scanning microscopy.
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|Titolo:||SPAD-based asynchronous-readout array detectors for image-scanning microscopy|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2020|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|