Many areas around the world are affected by Groundwater Level rising (GWLr). One of the most severe consequences of this phenomenon is Groundwater Flooding (GF), with serious impacts for the human and natural environment. In Europe, GF has recently received specific attention with Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires Member States to map GF hazard and propose measures for risk mitigation. In this paper a methodology has been developed for Groundwater Flooding Susceptibility (GFS) assessment, using for the first time Spatial Distribution Models. These Machine Learning techniques connect occurrence data to predisposing factors (PFs) to estimate their distributions. The implemented methodology employs aquifer type, depth of piezometric level, thickness and hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated zone, drainage density and land-use as PFs, and a GF observations inventory as occurrences. The algorithms adopted to perform the analysis are Generalized Boosting Model, Artificial Neural Network and Maximum Entropy. Ensemble Models are carried out to reduce the uncertainty associated with each algorithm and increase its reliability. GFS is mapped by choosing the ensemble model with the best predictivity performance and dividing occurrence probability values into five classes, from very low to very high susceptibility, using Natural Breaks classification. The methodology has been tested and statistically validated in an area of 14,3 km2 located in the Metropolitan City of Naples (Italy), affected by GWLr since 1990 and GF in buildings and agricultural soils since 2007. The results of modeling show that about 93% of the inventoried points fall in the high and very high GFS classes, and piezometric level depth, thickness of unsaturated zone and drainage density are the most influencing PFs, in accordance with field observations and the triggering mechanism of GF. The outcomes provide a first step in the assessment of GF hazard and a decision support tool to local authorities for GF risk management.

A novel methodology for Groundwater Flooding Susceptibility assessment through Machine Learning techniques in a mixed-land use aquifer

Di Napoli M.;Calcaterra D.;Di Martire D.;De Vita P.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Many areas around the world are affected by Groundwater Level rising (GWLr). One of the most severe consequences of this phenomenon is Groundwater Flooding (GF), with serious impacts for the human and natural environment. In Europe, GF has recently received specific attention with Directive 2007/60/EC, which requires Member States to map GF hazard and propose measures for risk mitigation. In this paper a methodology has been developed for Groundwater Flooding Susceptibility (GFS) assessment, using for the first time Spatial Distribution Models. These Machine Learning techniques connect occurrence data to predisposing factors (PFs) to estimate their distributions. The implemented methodology employs aquifer type, depth of piezometric level, thickness and hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated zone, drainage density and land-use as PFs, and a GF observations inventory as occurrences. The algorithms adopted to perform the analysis are Generalized Boosting Model, Artificial Neural Network and Maximum Entropy. Ensemble Models are carried out to reduce the uncertainty associated with each algorithm and increase its reliability. GFS is mapped by choosing the ensemble model with the best predictivity performance and dividing occurrence probability values into five classes, from very low to very high susceptibility, using Natural Breaks classification. The methodology has been tested and statistically validated in an area of 14,3 km2 located in the Metropolitan City of Naples (Italy), affected by GWLr since 1990 and GF in buildings and agricultural soils since 2007. The results of modeling show that about 93% of the inventoried points fall in the high and very high GFS classes, and piezometric level depth, thickness of unsaturated zone and drainage density are the most influencing PFs, in accordance with field observations and the triggering mechanism of GF. The outcomes provide a first step in the assessment of GF hazard and a decision support tool to local authorities for GF risk management.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1074730
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