The ferruginous limpet is one of the most threatened invertebrate species in the Mediterranean Sea. Its controlled reproduction has been considered one of the potentially most effective strategies for the production of juveniles for population restocking or for recolonization of areas where the species was brought to extinction by human pressure but is now under protection (e.g., MPAs). This approach has been pursued for at least two decades but with partial results: at most, some juveniles have been obtained and have reached adult stage, yet not starting from spawning induction but through sacrifice of female specimens (lethal approach), additionally resulting in low genetic diversity of the juveniles produced. Herein, we describe, for the first time, positive results of the spawning induction in P. ferruginea. The fertilizations made after these experiences allow describing the larval development of the species from its early stages to its metamorphosis. The fertilization rate in these spawning events was much higher (>97%) than in previous studies that were based on the extraction of oocytes by dissection. The rate of non-anomalous larvae after 15 hours was not negligible but variable, depending perhaps on the quality of the sperm available at each fertilization. The timing of larval development of the species and its variability, particularly regarding metamorphosis, are described. Settlement ability is reached at 3–4 days after fertilization, depending on water temperature, while a large variability is observed in metamorphosis, occurring between 7 and 32 days (probably up to 40 days), although inducing factors are still unknown.
|Titolo:||Advancements towards restoration of the endangered limpet Patella ferruginea Gmelin, 1791 through controlled reproduction|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.01 - Articolo su rivista|