Oil spills into the oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harms the coastal population of the affected areas. The main measures to be taken in response to an oil spill are to reduce the impact on marine life, prevent oil from reaching the shore through its recovery, and accelerate the degradation of unrecovered oil. Any environmental damage can be reduced if the spilled oil is removed from the water quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it is essential to know the treatment strategies for spilled oils. Several technologies are currently available, including booms, skimmers, in situ burning, use of adsorbents, dispersants/surfactants, and bioremediation. The selection of the type of treatment will depend not only on the effectiveness of the technique, but mainly on the type of oil, amount spilled, location, weather, and sea conditions. In this review, the characteristics of oil spills, their origin, destination, and impacts caused, including major accidents around the world, are initially addressed. Then, the main physical, chemical, and biological treatment technologies are presented, describing their advances, advantages, and drawbacks, with a focus on the use of green surfactants. These agents will be described in detail, showing the evolution of research, recent studies, patents, and commercialized products. Finally, the challenges that remain due to spills, the necessary actions, and the prospects for the development of existing treatment technologies are discussed, which must be linked to the use of combined techniques.

Oil spills: impacts and perspectives of treatment technologies with focus on the use of green surfactants

Converti A.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Oil spills into the oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harms the coastal population of the affected areas. The main measures to be taken in response to an oil spill are to reduce the impact on marine life, prevent oil from reaching the shore through its recovery, and accelerate the degradation of unrecovered oil. Any environmental damage can be reduced if the spilled oil is removed from the water quickly and efficiently. Therefore, it is essential to know the treatment strategies for spilled oils. Several technologies are currently available, including booms, skimmers, in situ burning, use of adsorbents, dispersants/surfactants, and bioremediation. The selection of the type of treatment will depend not only on the effectiveness of the technique, but mainly on the type of oil, amount spilled, location, weather, and sea conditions. In this review, the characteristics of oil spills, their origin, destination, and impacts caused, including major accidents around the world, are initially addressed. Then, the main physical, chemical, and biological treatment technologies are presented, describing their advances, advantages, and drawbacks, with a focus on the use of green surfactants. These agents will be described in detail, showing the evolution of research, recent studies, patents, and commercialized products. Finally, the challenges that remain due to spills, the necessary actions, and the prospects for the development of existing treatment technologies are discussed, which must be linked to the use of combined techniques.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1069490
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