Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), macrophages play an important role in modulating the immunoinflammatory response through their polarisation into “classically” (M1) or “alternatively activated” (M2) phenotypes. In RA, CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) reduces the inflammatory activity of macrophages by interacting with the costimulatory molecule CD86. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig treatment to induce an M2 phenotype both in M1-polarised monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) obtained from healthy subjects (HS) and in cultured MDMs obtained from active RA patients. Methods: Cultured MDMs were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 7 active RA patients and from 10 HS after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (5 ng/mL) for 24 h. HS-MDMs were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/mL) for 4 h to induce M1-MDMs. M1-MDMs and RA-MDMs were treated with CTLA4-Ig (100 μM and 500 μM) for 3, 12, 24, and 48 h. The gene expression of CD80, CD86, and TLR4 (M1 markers); CD163, CD204, and CD206 (surface M2 markers); and MerTK (functional M2 marker) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. The protein synthesis of surface M2 markers was investigated by Western blotting. The statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon t-test. Results: In LPS-induced HS-M1-MDMs, CTLA4-Ig 100 μM and 500 μM significantly downregulated the gene expression of M1 markers (3 h p<0.01 for all molecules; 12 h p<0.05 for TLR4 and CD86) and significantly upregulated that of M2 markers, primarily after 12 h of treatment (CD163: p < 0.01 and p < 0.05; CD206: p < 0.05 and p < 0.01; CD204: p < 0.05 by 100 mg/mL). Moreover, in these cells, CTLA4-Ig 500 μM increased the protein synthesis of surface M2 markers (p < 0.05). Similarly, in RA-MDMs, the CTLA4-Ig treatment significantly downregulated the gene expression of M1 markers at both concentrations primarily after 12 h (p < 0.05). Furthermore, both concentrations of CTLA4-Ig significantly upregulated the gene expression of CD206 (after 3 h of treatment; p < 0.05), CD163, and MerTK (after 12 h of treatment, p < 0.05), whereas CD204 gene expression was significantly upregulated by the high concentration of CTLA4-Ig (p < 0.05). The protein synthesis of all surface markers was increased primarily by CTLA4-Ig 500 μM, significantly for CD204 and CD206 after 24 h of treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusions: CTLA4-Ig treatment seems to induce the in vitro shift from M1 to M2 macrophages, of both HS-M1-MDMs and RA-MDMs, as observed by the significant downregulation exerted on selected M1 markers and the upregulation of selected M2 markers suggesting an additional mechanism for its modulation of the RA inflammatory process.

CTLA4-Ig treatment induces M1–M2 shift in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy subjects and rheumatoid arthritis patients

Cutolo M.;Soldano S.;Gotelli E.;Montagna P.;Campitiello R.;Paolino S.;Pizzorni C.;Sulli A.;Tardito S.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), macrophages play an important role in modulating the immunoinflammatory response through their polarisation into “classically” (M1) or “alternatively activated” (M2) phenotypes. In RA, CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) reduces the inflammatory activity of macrophages by interacting with the costimulatory molecule CD86. The study aimed to investigate the efficacy of CTLA4-Ig treatment to induce an M2 phenotype both in M1-polarised monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) obtained from healthy subjects (HS) and in cultured MDMs obtained from active RA patients. Methods: Cultured MDMs were obtained from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 7 active RA patients and from 10 HS after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (5 ng/mL) for 24 h. HS-MDMs were then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 mg/mL) for 4 h to induce M1-MDMs. M1-MDMs and RA-MDMs were treated with CTLA4-Ig (100 μM and 500 μM) for 3, 12, 24, and 48 h. The gene expression of CD80, CD86, and TLR4 (M1 markers); CD163, CD204, and CD206 (surface M2 markers); and MerTK (functional M2 marker) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. The protein synthesis of surface M2 markers was investigated by Western blotting. The statistical analysis was performed by the Wilcoxon t-test. Results: In LPS-induced HS-M1-MDMs, CTLA4-Ig 100 μM and 500 μM significantly downregulated the gene expression of M1 markers (3 h p<0.01 for all molecules; 12 h p<0.05 for TLR4 and CD86) and significantly upregulated that of M2 markers, primarily after 12 h of treatment (CD163: p < 0.01 and p < 0.05; CD206: p < 0.05 and p < 0.01; CD204: p < 0.05 by 100 mg/mL). Moreover, in these cells, CTLA4-Ig 500 μM increased the protein synthesis of surface M2 markers (p < 0.05). Similarly, in RA-MDMs, the CTLA4-Ig treatment significantly downregulated the gene expression of M1 markers at both concentrations primarily after 12 h (p < 0.05). Furthermore, both concentrations of CTLA4-Ig significantly upregulated the gene expression of CD206 (after 3 h of treatment; p < 0.05), CD163, and MerTK (after 12 h of treatment, p < 0.05), whereas CD204 gene expression was significantly upregulated by the high concentration of CTLA4-Ig (p < 0.05). The protein synthesis of all surface markers was increased primarily by CTLA4-Ig 500 μM, significantly for CD204 and CD206 after 24 h of treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusions: CTLA4-Ig treatment seems to induce the in vitro shift from M1 to M2 macrophages, of both HS-M1-MDMs and RA-MDMs, as observed by the significant downregulation exerted on selected M1 markers and the upregulation of selected M2 markers suggesting an additional mechanism for its modulation of the RA inflammatory process.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1066976
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