The existence of epitaxy in polybutene-1 form II-on-form I cross-nucleation was investigated by nanofocused synchrotron X-ray diffraction. To this aim, form I hedrites, which show a lamellar stacking with a uniform crystal lattice orientation, were adopted as the substrate. The form II crystals develop a spherulitic transcrystalline layer on the lateral surface of the form I substrate, due to cross-nucleation. Through mapping both the intensity and azimuthal orientation of characteristic planes of the two polymorphs, a clearly defined nucleation area between form II (daughter) and form I (parent) could be identified. Comparing the two-dimensional diffraction patterns in that area, a preferred mutual orientation of the two structure is revealed. In particular, the (200)II plane of form II and the (110)I plane of form I are reciprocally oriented at a fixed angle of ∼8.5°. This orientation results in almost parallel (110) planes between the two structures. It is calculated that the mismatch between interchain distances within the common (110) planes is about 4%, while that along the chain axes is less than 10%, both well below the accepted mismatch criterion for epitaxial crystallization. These results provide solid evidence for the existence of an epitaxial relationship in the cross-nucleation between polybutene-1 form II and form I. We note that the (110) contact plane between the two structures in cross-nucleation is the same as the one involved in the well-studied solid-state phase transformation from form II to form I. Moreover, the X-ray nanofocus approach and the proposed data analysis could be effectively applied to other cross-nucleating systems to shed light on the role of epitaxy in this peculiar phenomenon of nucleation between polymorphs.

Epitaxy in Polybutene-1 Form II-on-Form i Cross-Nucleation Revealed by Nanofocused X-ray Diffraction on Ad Hoc Morphology

Wang W.;Wang B.;Carmeli E.;Cavallo D.
2021

Abstract

The existence of epitaxy in polybutene-1 form II-on-form I cross-nucleation was investigated by nanofocused synchrotron X-ray diffraction. To this aim, form I hedrites, which show a lamellar stacking with a uniform crystal lattice orientation, were adopted as the substrate. The form II crystals develop a spherulitic transcrystalline layer on the lateral surface of the form I substrate, due to cross-nucleation. Through mapping both the intensity and azimuthal orientation of characteristic planes of the two polymorphs, a clearly defined nucleation area between form II (daughter) and form I (parent) could be identified. Comparing the two-dimensional diffraction patterns in that area, a preferred mutual orientation of the two structure is revealed. In particular, the (200)II plane of form II and the (110)I plane of form I are reciprocally oriented at a fixed angle of ∼8.5°. This orientation results in almost parallel (110) planes between the two structures. It is calculated that the mismatch between interchain distances within the common (110) planes is about 4%, while that along the chain axes is less than 10%, both well below the accepted mismatch criterion for epitaxial crystallization. These results provide solid evidence for the existence of an epitaxial relationship in the cross-nucleation between polybutene-1 form II and form I. We note that the (110) contact plane between the two structures in cross-nucleation is the same as the one involved in the well-studied solid-state phase transformation from form II to form I. Moreover, the X-ray nanofocus approach and the proposed data analysis could be effectively applied to other cross-nucleating systems to shed light on the role of epitaxy in this peculiar phenomenon of nucleation between polymorphs.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1066636
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