Despite the increasing interest, the research field which studies the concepts of work and heat at the quantum level has suffered from two main drawbacks: first, the difficulty to properly define and measure the work, heat, and internal energy variation in a quantum system and, second, the lack of experiments. Here, we report a full characterization of the dissipated heat, work, and internal energy variation in a two-level quantum system interacting with an engineered environment. We use the IBMQ quantum computer to implement the driven system's dynamics in a dissipative environment. The experimental data allow us to construct quasiprobability distribution functions from which we recover the correct averages of work, heat, and internal energy variation in the dissipative processes. Interestingly, by increasing the environment coupling strength, we observe a reduction of the pure quantum features of the energy exchange processes that we interpret as the emergence of the classical limit. This makes the present approach a privileged tool to study, understand, and exploit quantum effects in energy exchanges.

Measurement of work and heat in the classical and quantum regimes

Solinas P.;Zanghi N.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Despite the increasing interest, the research field which studies the concepts of work and heat at the quantum level has suffered from two main drawbacks: first, the difficulty to properly define and measure the work, heat, and internal energy variation in a quantum system and, second, the lack of experiments. Here, we report a full characterization of the dissipated heat, work, and internal energy variation in a two-level quantum system interacting with an engineered environment. We use the IBMQ quantum computer to implement the driven system's dynamics in a dissipative environment. The experimental data allow us to construct quasiprobability distribution functions from which we recover the correct averages of work, heat, and internal energy variation in the dissipative processes. Interestingly, by increasing the environment coupling strength, we observe a reduction of the pure quantum features of the energy exchange processes that we interpret as the emergence of the classical limit. This makes the present approach a privileged tool to study, understand, and exploit quantum effects in energy exchanges.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1065960
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