: More and more biologists and bioinformaticians turn to machine learning to analyze large amounts of data. In this context, it is crucial to understand which is the most suitable data analysis pipeline for achieving reliable results. This process may be challenging, due to a variety of factors, the most crucial ones being the data type and the general goal of the analysis (e.g., explorative or predictive). Life science data sets require further consideration as they often contain measures with a low signal-to-noise ratio, high-dimensional observations, and relatively few samples. In this complex setting, regularization, which can be defined as the introduction of additional information to solve an ill-posed problem, is the tool of choice to obtain robust models. Different regularization practices may be used depending both on characteristics of the data and of the question asked, and different choices may lead to different results. In this article, we provide a comprehensive description of the impact and importance of regularization techniques in life science studies. In particular, we provide an intuition of what regularization is and of the different ways it can be implemented and exploited. We propose four general life sciences problems in which regularization is fundamental and should be exploited for robustness. For each of these large families of problems, we enumerate different techniques as well as examples and case studies. Lastly, we provide a unified view of how to approach each data type with various regularization techniques.

Where Do We Stand in Regularization for Life Science Studies?

Tozzo, Veronica;Fiorini, Samuele;Fava, Emanuele;Trucco, Andrea;Barla, Annalisa
2022

Abstract

: More and more biologists and bioinformaticians turn to machine learning to analyze large amounts of data. In this context, it is crucial to understand which is the most suitable data analysis pipeline for achieving reliable results. This process may be challenging, due to a variety of factors, the most crucial ones being the data type and the general goal of the analysis (e.g., explorative or predictive). Life science data sets require further consideration as they often contain measures with a low signal-to-noise ratio, high-dimensional observations, and relatively few samples. In this complex setting, regularization, which can be defined as the introduction of additional information to solve an ill-posed problem, is the tool of choice to obtain robust models. Different regularization practices may be used depending both on characteristics of the data and of the question asked, and different choices may lead to different results. In this article, we provide a comprehensive description of the impact and importance of regularization techniques in life science studies. In particular, we provide an intuition of what regularization is and of the different ways it can be implemented and exploited. We propose four general life sciences problems in which regularization is fundamental and should be exploited for robustness. For each of these large families of problems, we enumerate different techniques as well as examples and case studies. Lastly, we provide a unified view of how to approach each data type with various regularization techniques.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1065562
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