We consider spherically symmetric spacetimes with an outer trapping horizon. Such spacetimes are generalizations of spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes where the central mass can vary with time, like in black hole collapse or black hole evaporation. While these spacetimes possess in general no timelike Killing vector field, they admit a Kodama vector field which in some ways provides a replacement. The Kodama vector field allows the definition of a surface gravity of the outer trapping horizon. Spherically symmetric spacelike cross sections of the outer trapping horizon define in- and outgoing lightlike congruences. We investigate a scaling limit of Hadamard 2-point functions of a quantum field on the spacetime onto the ingoing lightlike congruence. The scaling limit 2-point function has a universal form and a thermal spectrum with respect to the time parameter of the Kodama flow, where the inverse temperature β= 2 π/ κ is related to the surface gravity κ of the horizon cross section in the same way as in the Hawking effect for an asymptotically static black hole. Similarly, the tunnelling probability that can be obtained in the scaling limit between in- and outgoing Fourier modes with respect to the time parameter of the Kodama flow shows a thermal distribution with the same inverse temperature, determined by the surface gravity. This can be seen as a local counterpart of the Hawking effect for a dynamical horizon in the scaling limit. Moreover, the scaling limit 2-point function allows it to define a scaling limit theory, a quantum field theory on the ingoing lightlike congruence emanating from a horizon cross section. The scaling limit 2-point function as well as the 2-point functions of coherent states of the scaling limit theory is correlation-free with respect to separation along the horizon cross section; therefore, their relative entropies behave proportional to the cross-sectional area. We thus obtain a proportionality of the relative entropy of coherent states of the scaling limit theory and the area of the horizon cross section with respect to which the scaling limit is defined. Thereby, we establish a local counterpart, and microscopic interpretation in the setting of quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, of the dynamical laws of outer trapping horizons, derived by Hayward and others in generalizing the laws of black hole dynamics originally shown for stationary black holes by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking.

Temperature and entropy–area relation of quantum matter near spherically symmetric outer trapping horizons

Pinamonti N.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

We consider spherically symmetric spacetimes with an outer trapping horizon. Such spacetimes are generalizations of spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes where the central mass can vary with time, like in black hole collapse or black hole evaporation. While these spacetimes possess in general no timelike Killing vector field, they admit a Kodama vector field which in some ways provides a replacement. The Kodama vector field allows the definition of a surface gravity of the outer trapping horizon. Spherically symmetric spacelike cross sections of the outer trapping horizon define in- and outgoing lightlike congruences. We investigate a scaling limit of Hadamard 2-point functions of a quantum field on the spacetime onto the ingoing lightlike congruence. The scaling limit 2-point function has a universal form and a thermal spectrum with respect to the time parameter of the Kodama flow, where the inverse temperature β= 2 π/ κ is related to the surface gravity κ of the horizon cross section in the same way as in the Hawking effect for an asymptotically static black hole. Similarly, the tunnelling probability that can be obtained in the scaling limit between in- and outgoing Fourier modes with respect to the time parameter of the Kodama flow shows a thermal distribution with the same inverse temperature, determined by the surface gravity. This can be seen as a local counterpart of the Hawking effect for a dynamical horizon in the scaling limit. Moreover, the scaling limit 2-point function allows it to define a scaling limit theory, a quantum field theory on the ingoing lightlike congruence emanating from a horizon cross section. The scaling limit 2-point function as well as the 2-point functions of coherent states of the scaling limit theory is correlation-free with respect to separation along the horizon cross section; therefore, their relative entropies behave proportional to the cross-sectional area. We thus obtain a proportionality of the relative entropy of coherent states of the scaling limit theory and the area of the horizon cross section with respect to which the scaling limit is defined. Thereby, we establish a local counterpart, and microscopic interpretation in the setting of quantum field theory on curved spacetimes, of the dynamical laws of outer trapping horizons, derived by Hayward and others in generalizing the laws of black hole dynamics originally shown for stationary black holes by Bardeen, Carter and Hawking.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1064380
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