Monoclonal antibodies, such as bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination (BEC), have been proposed for patients with mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, few studies have assessed the factors associated with the early administration of BEC or the impact of early BEC treatment on the clinical evolution of the patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all adults with COVID-19 who received BEC at three institutions in the Liguria region. The primary endpoint was to investigate the clinical variables associated with early BEC infusion. Secondary endpoints were 30-day overall mortality and the composite endpoint of requirement of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen during the 30-day follow-up period. A total of 127 patients (median age 70 years; 56.7% males) received BEC. Of those, 93 (73.2%) received BEC within 5 days from symptoms onset (early BEC). Patients with a higher Charlson comorbidity index were more likely to receive early treatment (odds ratio (OR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04– 2.45; p = 0.03) in contrast to those reporting fever at presentation (OR 0.26, 0.08–0.82; p = 0.02). Early BEC was associated with lower likelihood of hospital admission or need for supplemental oxygen (OR 0.19, 0.06–0.65; p = 0.008). Five patients who received early BEC died during the follow-up period, but only one of them due to COVID-19-related causes. Early bamlanivimab and etesevimab combination was more frequently administered to patients with a high Charlson comorbidity index. Despite this, early BEC was associated with a lower rate of hospital admission or need for any supplementary oxygen compared to late administration. These results suggest that efforts should focus on encouraging early BEC use in patients with mild–moderate COVID-19 at risk for complications.
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