Although, the association between celiac disease (CD) and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) has been known for more than fifty years, the procedures for diagnosing and monitoring patients with both conditions are still far from definitive. When serological markers were introduced as pre-bioptic investigations, it was immediately clear that searching for specific IgA antibodies without checking total serum IgA could lead to a failure in diagnosing IgA-deficient CD patients, while specific IgG antibodies could be useful as additional tests, because they are frequently found in the serum of affected patients. Nonetheless, until recently the diagnosis of CD in IgA-deficient patients was based on the few, fragmentary and often contradictory data available in literature. The introduction of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines in 2012 provided the current criteria for diagnosing CD in IgA-deficient patients, although some issues remained open, such as the selection of patients who should undergo specific IgG antibody testing and the choice of the most reliable IgG-based test for both diagnosis and follow-up. A real-life study recently assessed the impact of the 2012 ESPGHAN guidelines in diagnosing and monitoring CD in SIgAD patients, highlighting several pitfalls that can lead to operational uncertainties and difficulties in patient management. In the present report, the evolution of diagnostic tools and criteria for CD in SIgAD patients has been critically assessed, both strengths and open issues have been highlighted, and future perspectives for improving the current diagnostic protocols have been suggested.

Diagnosing and Monitoring Celiac Patients with Selective IgA Deficiency: Still an Open Issue

Pesce G.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Although, the association between celiac disease (CD) and selective immunoglobulin A deficiency (SIgAD) has been known for more than fifty years, the procedures for diagnosing and monitoring patients with both conditions are still far from definitive. When serological markers were introduced as pre-bioptic investigations, it was immediately clear that searching for specific IgA antibodies without checking total serum IgA could lead to a failure in diagnosing IgA-deficient CD patients, while specific IgG antibodies could be useful as additional tests, because they are frequently found in the serum of affected patients. Nonetheless, until recently the diagnosis of CD in IgA-deficient patients was based on the few, fragmentary and often contradictory data available in literature. The introduction of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines in 2012 provided the current criteria for diagnosing CD in IgA-deficient patients, although some issues remained open, such as the selection of patients who should undergo specific IgG antibody testing and the choice of the most reliable IgG-based test for both diagnosis and follow-up. A real-life study recently assessed the impact of the 2012 ESPGHAN guidelines in diagnosing and monitoring CD in SIgAD patients, highlighting several pitfalls that can lead to operational uncertainties and difficulties in patient management. In the present report, the evolution of diagnostic tools and criteria for CD in SIgAD patients has been critically assessed, both strengths and open issues have been highlighted, and future perspectives for improving the current diagnostic protocols have been suggested.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1060970
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