This work addresses the problem of power quality (PQ) metrics (or indexes) suitable for DC grids, encompassing low and medium voltage applications, including electric transports, all-electric ships and aircrafts, electric vehicles, distributed generation and microgrids, modern data centers, etc. The two main pillars on which such PQ indexes are discussed and built are: (i) the physical justification, so the electric phenomena affecting DC grids and components (PV panels, fuel cells, capacitors, batteries, etc.), causing, e.g., stress of materials, aging, distortion, grid insta-bility; and (ii) the existing standardization framework, pointing out desirable coverage and exten-sion, similarity with AC grids standards, but also inconsistencies. For the first point, each phe-nomenon is discussed with quantitative conclusions on relevant thresholds: in many cases some percentage of distortion (ripple) is acceptable (stress on capacitors and storage, impact on fuel cells, and PV panels), whereas in other cases, much higher levels may be tolerated (interference to protection and monitoring devices). Standards are reviewed for indications not only of low-order harmonics and voltage fluctuations typical of old DC grid schemes, but also for high-frequency noise, including thus supraharmonics and common-mode disturbance, and filling the gap with the electromagnetic compatibility domain. However, phenomena typical of EMC and electrical safety (such as various types of overvoltages and fast transients) are excluded. Suitable PQ indexes are then reviewed, suggesting integrations and modifications, to cover the relevant phenomena and technological progress, and to better follow the normative exigencies: ripple is considered in time and frequency domain, in particular with a band limited implementation; for transients and pulsed loads, more traditional indexes based on area, energy, and half duration are confronted with indexes evaluating the power trajectory and its derivative.

Power quality phenomena, standards, and proposed metrics for dc grids

Mariscotti A.
2021-01-01

Abstract

This work addresses the problem of power quality (PQ) metrics (or indexes) suitable for DC grids, encompassing low and medium voltage applications, including electric transports, all-electric ships and aircrafts, electric vehicles, distributed generation and microgrids, modern data centers, etc. The two main pillars on which such PQ indexes are discussed and built are: (i) the physical justification, so the electric phenomena affecting DC grids and components (PV panels, fuel cells, capacitors, batteries, etc.), causing, e.g., stress of materials, aging, distortion, grid insta-bility; and (ii) the existing standardization framework, pointing out desirable coverage and exten-sion, similarity with AC grids standards, but also inconsistencies. For the first point, each phe-nomenon is discussed with quantitative conclusions on relevant thresholds: in many cases some percentage of distortion (ripple) is acceptable (stress on capacitors and storage, impact on fuel cells, and PV panels), whereas in other cases, much higher levels may be tolerated (interference to protection and monitoring devices). Standards are reviewed for indications not only of low-order harmonics and voltage fluctuations typical of old DC grid schemes, but also for high-frequency noise, including thus supraharmonics and common-mode disturbance, and filling the gap with the electromagnetic compatibility domain. However, phenomena typical of EMC and electrical safety (such as various types of overvoltages and fast transients) are excluded. Suitable PQ indexes are then reviewed, suggesting integrations and modifications, to cover the relevant phenomena and technological progress, and to better follow the normative exigencies: ripple is considered in time and frequency domain, in particular with a band limited implementation; for transients and pulsed loads, more traditional indexes based on area, energy, and half duration are confronted with indexes evaluating the power trajectory and its derivative.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1060044
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