Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is poorly characterized in children. Objective: To describe causes, presentation, auxological outcome, frequency of adrenal crisis and mortality of a large cohort of children with PAI. Patients and Methods: Data from 803 patients from 8 centers of Pediatric Endocrinology were retrospectively collected. Results: The following etiologies were reported: 85% (n = 682) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD); 3.1% (n = 25) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; 3.1% (n = 25) autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1; 2.5% (n = 20) autoimmune adrenal insufficiency; 2% (n = 16) adrenal hypoplasia congenital; 1.2% (n = 10) non-21-OHD CAH; 1% (n = 8) rare syndromes; 0.6% (n = 5) familial glucocorticoid deficiency; 0.4% (n = 3) acquired adrenal insufficiency; 9 patients (1%) did not receive diagnosis. Since 21-OHD CAH has been extensively characterized, it was not further reviewed. In 121 patients with a diagnosis other than 21-OHD CAH, the most frequent symptoms at diagnosis were fatigue (67%), hyperpigmentation (50.4%), dehydration (33%), and hypotension (31%). Elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (96.4%) was the most common laboratory finding followed by hyponatremia (55%), hyperkalemia (32.7%), and hypoglycemia (33.7%). The median age at presentation was 6.5 ± 5.1 years (0.1-17.8 years) and the mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5.6 ± 11.6 months (0-56 months) depending on etiology. Rate of adrenal crisis was 2.7 per 100 patient-years. Three patients died from the underlying disease. Adult height, evaluated in 70 patients, was -0.70 ± 1.20 standard deviation score. Conclusions: We characterized one of the largest cohorts of children with PAI aiming to improve the knowledge on diagnosis of this rare condition.

Primary Adrenal Insufficiency in Childhood: Data from a Large Nationwide Cohort

Balsamo A.;Maghnie M.;Patti G.;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Context: Primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition that is poorly characterized in children. Objective: To describe causes, presentation, auxological outcome, frequency of adrenal crisis and mortality of a large cohort of children with PAI. Patients and Methods: Data from 803 patients from 8 centers of Pediatric Endocrinology were retrospectively collected. Results: The following etiologies were reported: 85% (n = 682) congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21-OHD); 3.1% (n = 25) X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy; 3.1% (n = 25) autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1; 2.5% (n = 20) autoimmune adrenal insufficiency; 2% (n = 16) adrenal hypoplasia congenital; 1.2% (n = 10) non-21-OHD CAH; 1% (n = 8) rare syndromes; 0.6% (n = 5) familial glucocorticoid deficiency; 0.4% (n = 3) acquired adrenal insufficiency; 9 patients (1%) did not receive diagnosis. Since 21-OHD CAH has been extensively characterized, it was not further reviewed. In 121 patients with a diagnosis other than 21-OHD CAH, the most frequent symptoms at diagnosis were fatigue (67%), hyperpigmentation (50.4%), dehydration (33%), and hypotension (31%). Elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone (96.4%) was the most common laboratory finding followed by hyponatremia (55%), hyperkalemia (32.7%), and hypoglycemia (33.7%). The median age at presentation was 6.5 ± 5.1 years (0.1-17.8 years) and the mean duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5.6 ± 11.6 months (0-56 months) depending on etiology. Rate of adrenal crisis was 2.7 per 100 patient-years. Three patients died from the underlying disease. Adult height, evaluated in 70 patients, was -0.70 ± 1.20 standard deviation score. Conclusions: We characterized one of the largest cohorts of children with PAI aiming to improve the knowledge on diagnosis of this rare condition.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1057649
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