Alzheimer's disease is a life shortening disease, and the lack of disease modifying therapy implies a huge impact on life expectancy as well as an outgrowing financial and socioeconomic burden. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) represent the first line symptomatic therapy, whose benefit to harm ratio is still a matter of debate. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme is a core interest for pharmacological and toxicological research to unmask the fine balance between therapeutic drug efficacy, tolerability, safety, and detrimental effects up to adverse drug reaction. So far, a body of evidence advocated that an increased vagal tone was associated to an increased risk of gastrointestinal and cardiac side effects (negative chronotropic, arrhytmogenic, hypotensive effects), able to hamper ChEIs effects on cognition, reducing administration feasibility and compliance, especially in older and comorbid patients. Conversely, a growing body of evidence is indicating a protective role of ChEIs on overall cardiovascular mortality in patients with dementia, through a series of in vitro and in vivo investigations. The present review is aimed to report the up to date literature in the controversial field of ChEIs and cardioprotection in dementia, offering a state of the art, which may constitute the conceptual framework to be enlarged in order to build higher evidence. Chronic vagal nerve stimulation acted upon by donepezil might improve long term survival through pharmacological properties apart from cholinesterase inhibition, able to offer cardioprotection, abating the overall cardiovascular risk, and, thus profiling a new line of therapeutic intervention for ChEI drug class.

Cholinesterase inhibitors: Cardioprotection in alzheimer's disease

Monacelli F.;Rosa G.
2014

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease is a life shortening disease, and the lack of disease modifying therapy implies a huge impact on life expectancy as well as an outgrowing financial and socioeconomic burden. Cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) represent the first line symptomatic therapy, whose benefit to harm ratio is still a matter of debate. Acetylcholinesterase enzyme is a core interest for pharmacological and toxicological research to unmask the fine balance between therapeutic drug efficacy, tolerability, safety, and detrimental effects up to adverse drug reaction. So far, a body of evidence advocated that an increased vagal tone was associated to an increased risk of gastrointestinal and cardiac side effects (negative chronotropic, arrhytmogenic, hypotensive effects), able to hamper ChEIs effects on cognition, reducing administration feasibility and compliance, especially in older and comorbid patients. Conversely, a growing body of evidence is indicating a protective role of ChEIs on overall cardiovascular mortality in patients with dementia, through a series of in vitro and in vivo investigations. The present review is aimed to report the up to date literature in the controversial field of ChEIs and cardioprotection in dementia, offering a state of the art, which may constitute the conceptual framework to be enlarged in order to build higher evidence. Chronic vagal nerve stimulation acted upon by donepezil might improve long term survival through pharmacological properties apart from cholinesterase inhibition, able to offer cardioprotection, abating the overall cardiovascular risk, and, thus profiling a new line of therapeutic intervention for ChEI drug class.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1055686
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