In patients with suspected dementia with Lewy bodies, the detection of the disease-associated alpha-synuclein in easily accessible tissues amenable to be collected using minimally invasive procedures remains a major diagnostic challenge. This approach has the potential to take advantage of modern molecular assays for the diagnosis of alpha-synucleinopathy and, in turn, to optimize the recruitment and selection of patients in clinical trials, using drugs directed at counteracting alpha-synuclein aggregation. In this study, we explored the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay by testing olfactory mucosa and CSF in patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable (n=32) or prodromal (n=5) dementia with Lewy bodies or mixed degenerative dementia (dementia with Lewy bodies/Alzheimer's disease) (n=6). Thirty-eight patients with non-alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (n=10), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=10), progressive supranuclear palsy (n=8), corticobasal syndrome (n=1), fronto-temporal dementia (n=3) and other neurological conditions (n=6) were also included, as controls. All 81 patients underwent olfactory swabbing while CSF was obtained in 48 participants. At the initial blinded screening of olfactory mucosa samples, 38 out of 81 resulted positive while CSF was positive in 19 samples out of 48 analysed. After unblinding of the results, 27 positive olfactory mucosa were assigned to patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies, five with prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies and three to patients with mixed dementia, as opposed to three out 38 controls. Corresponding results of CSF testing disclosed 10 out 10 positive samples in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies and six out of six with mixed dementia, in addition to three out of 32 for controls. The accuracy among results of real-time quaking-induced conversion assays and clinical diagnoses was 86.4% in the case of olfactory mucosa and 93.8% for CSF. For the first time, we showed that alpha-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay detects alpha-synuclein aggregates in olfactory mucosa of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and with mixed dementia. Additionally, we provided preliminary evidence that the combined testing of olfactory mucosa and CSF raised the concordance with clinical diagnosis potentially to 100%. Our results suggest that nasal swabbing might be considered as a first-line screening procedure in patients with a diagnosis of suspected dementia with Lewy bodies followed by CSF analysis, as a confirmatory test, when the result in the olfactory mucosa is incongruent with the initial clinical diagnosis.

Alpha-synuclein seeds in olfactory mucosa and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies

Novi, Giovanni;Schenone, Guido;Morbelli, Silvia;Nobili, Flavio;
2021

Abstract

In patients with suspected dementia with Lewy bodies, the detection of the disease-associated alpha-synuclein in easily accessible tissues amenable to be collected using minimally invasive procedures remains a major diagnostic challenge. This approach has the potential to take advantage of modern molecular assays for the diagnosis of alpha-synucleinopathy and, in turn, to optimize the recruitment and selection of patients in clinical trials, using drugs directed at counteracting alpha-synuclein aggregation. In this study, we explored the diagnostic accuracy of alpha-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay by testing olfactory mucosa and CSF in patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable (n=32) or prodromal (n=5) dementia with Lewy bodies or mixed degenerative dementia (dementia with Lewy bodies/Alzheimer's disease) (n=6). Thirty-eight patients with non-alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative and non-neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (n=10), sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (n=10), progressive supranuclear palsy (n=8), corticobasal syndrome (n=1), fronto-temporal dementia (n=3) and other neurological conditions (n=6) were also included, as controls. All 81 patients underwent olfactory swabbing while CSF was obtained in 48 participants. At the initial blinded screening of olfactory mucosa samples, 38 out of 81 resulted positive while CSF was positive in 19 samples out of 48 analysed. After unblinding of the results, 27 positive olfactory mucosa were assigned to patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies, five with prodromal dementia with Lewy bodies and three to patients with mixed dementia, as opposed to three out 38 controls. Corresponding results of CSF testing disclosed 10 out 10 positive samples in patients with probable dementia with Lewy bodies and six out of six with mixed dementia, in addition to three out of 32 for controls. The accuracy among results of real-time quaking-induced conversion assays and clinical diagnoses was 86.4% in the case of olfactory mucosa and 93.8% for CSF. For the first time, we showed that alpha-synuclein real-time quaking-induced conversion assay detects alpha-synuclein aggregates in olfactory mucosa of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies and with mixed dementia. Additionally, we provided preliminary evidence that the combined testing of olfactory mucosa and CSF raised the concordance with clinical diagnosis potentially to 100%. Our results suggest that nasal swabbing might be considered as a first-line screening procedure in patients with a diagnosis of suspected dementia with Lewy bodies followed by CSF analysis, as a confirmatory test, when the result in the olfactory mucosa is incongruent with the initial clinical diagnosis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1046206
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