We combined the patch-clamp technique with ratiometric fluorescence imaging using the proton-responsive BCECF dye as a luminal probe. Upon application of a steep cytosol-directed K+ gradient in Arabidopsis mesophyll vacuoles, a strong and reversible acidification of the vacuolar lumen was detected, while no associated electrical currents were observed, in agreement with electroneutral cation/H+ exchange. Our data show that this acidification was generated by NHX antiport activity, since: it did not distinguish between K+ and Na+ ions; it was sensitive to the NHX inhibitor benzamil; and it was completely absent in vacuoles from nhx1 nhx2 double knockout plants. Our data further show that NHX activity could be reversed, was voltage independent and specifically impaired by the low-abundance signaling lipid PI(3,5)P2 , which may regulate salt accumulation in plants by acting as a common messenger to coordinately shut down secondary active carriers responsible for cation and anion uptake inside the vacuole. Finally, we developed a theory based on thermodynamics, which supports the data obtained by our novel experimental approach. This work, therefore, represents a proof of principle that can be applied to the study of proton-dependent exchangers from plants and animals, which are barely detectable using conventional techniques.

Beyond the patch-clamp resolution:functional activity of non-electrogenic vacuolar NHX proton/potassium antiporters and inhibition by phosphoinositides

Carpaneto, Armando
2021

Abstract

We combined the patch-clamp technique with ratiometric fluorescence imaging using the proton-responsive BCECF dye as a luminal probe. Upon application of a steep cytosol-directed K+ gradient in Arabidopsis mesophyll vacuoles, a strong and reversible acidification of the vacuolar lumen was detected, while no associated electrical currents were observed, in agreement with electroneutral cation/H+ exchange. Our data show that this acidification was generated by NHX antiport activity, since: it did not distinguish between K+ and Na+ ions; it was sensitive to the NHX inhibitor benzamil; and it was completely absent in vacuoles from nhx1 nhx2 double knockout plants. Our data further show that NHX activity could be reversed, was voltage independent and specifically impaired by the low-abundance signaling lipid PI(3,5)P2 , which may regulate salt accumulation in plants by acting as a common messenger to coordinately shut down secondary active carriers responsible for cation and anion uptake inside the vacuole. Finally, we developed a theory based on thermodynamics, which supports the data obtained by our novel experimental approach. This work, therefore, represents a proof of principle that can be applied to the study of proton-dependent exchangers from plants and animals, which are barely detectable using conventional techniques.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
50_Gradogna_NP_2020.pdf

accesso chiuso

Tipologia: Documento in versione editoriale
Dimensione 1.21 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.21 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1031130
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 6
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 3
social impact