Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of several autosomal recessive disorders that inhibit steroid biosynthesis. We describe a case report diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency due to low adrenal steroids and adrenocorticotropic hormone excess due to lack of cortisol negative feedback signaling to the pituary gland. Genetic work up revealed two missense variants, p.Thr204Arg and p.Leu260Arg in the STAR gene, inherited by both parents (non-consanguineous). The StAR protein supports CYP11A1 enzyme to cleave the side chain of cholesterol and synthesize pregnenolone which is metabolized to all steroid hormones. We used bioinformatics to predict the impact of the variants on StAR activity and then we performed functional tests to characterize the two novel variants. In a cell system we tested the ability of variants to support cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone and measured their mRNA and protein expression. For both variants, we observed loss of StAR function, reduced protein expression and categorized them as pathogenic variants according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. These results fit the phenotype of the girl during diagnosis. This study characterizes two novel variants and expands the list of missense variants that cause CAH.

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of several autosomal recessive disorders that inhibit steroid biosynthesis. We describe a case report diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency due to low adrenal steroids and adrenocorticotropic hormone excess due to lack of cortisol negative feedback signaling to the pituary gland. Genetic work up revealed two missense variants, p.Thr204Arg and p.Leu260Arg in the STAR gene, inherited by both parents (non-consanguineous). The StAR protein supports CYP11A1 enzyme to cleave the side chain of cholesterol and synthesize pregnenolone which is metabolized to all steroid hormones. We used bioinformatics to predict the impact of the variants on StAR activity and then we performed functional tests to characterize the two novel variants. In a cell system we tested the ability of variants to support cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone and measured their mRNA and protein expression. For both variants, we observed loss of StAR function, reduced protein expression and categorized them as pathogenic variants according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. These results fit the phenotype of the girl during diagnosis. This study characterizes two novel variants and expands the list of missense variants that cause CAH.

Characterization of Two Novel Variants of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Identified in a Girl with Classic Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

Di Iorgi, Natascia;Patti, Giuseppa;Lezzi, Marilea;Maghnie, Mohamad;
2020

Abstract

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of several autosomal recessive disorders that inhibit steroid biosynthesis. We describe a case report diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency due to low adrenal steroids and adrenocorticotropic hormone excess due to lack of cortisol negative feedback signaling to the pituary gland. Genetic work up revealed two missense variants, p.Thr204Arg and p.Leu260Arg in the STAR gene, inherited by both parents (non-consanguineous). The StAR protein supports CYP11A1 enzyme to cleave the side chain of cholesterol and synthesize pregnenolone which is metabolized to all steroid hormones. We used bioinformatics to predict the impact of the variants on StAR activity and then we performed functional tests to characterize the two novel variants. In a cell system we tested the ability of variants to support cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone and measured their mRNA and protein expression. For both variants, we observed loss of StAR function, reduced protein expression and categorized them as pathogenic variants according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. These results fit the phenotype of the girl during diagnosis. This study characterizes two novel variants and expands the list of missense variants that cause CAH.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) consists of several autosomal recessive disorders that inhibit steroid biosynthesis. We describe a case report diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency due to low adrenal steroids and adrenocorticotropic hormone excess due to lack of cortisol negative feedback signaling to the pituary gland. Genetic work up revealed two missense variants, p.Thr204Arg and p.Leu260Arg in the STAR gene, inherited by both parents (non-consanguineous). The StAR protein supports CYP11A1 enzyme to cleave the side chain of cholesterol and synthesize pregnenolone which is metabolized to all steroid hormones. We used bioinformatics to predict the impact of the variants on StAR activity and then we performed functional tests to characterize the two novel variants. In a cell system we tested the ability of variants to support cholesterol conversion to pregnenolone and measured their mRNA and protein expression. For both variants, we observed loss of StAR function, reduced protein expression and categorized them as pathogenic variants according to guidelines of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and the Association for Molecular Pathology. These results fit the phenotype of the girl during diagnosis. This study characterizes two novel variants and expands the list of missense variants that cause CAH.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1025767
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