Emission Control Areas (ECAs) in EU waters already have imposed a 0.1% sulphur cap and IMO has set a global limit for sulphur in fuel oil used on board ships of 0.50% m/m (mass by mass) from 1 January 2020, which enforces the cap already applicable in EU waters under the Sulphur Directive. It is widely recognized that the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) instead of conventional residual and distillate fuels will substantially reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter (PM). Nonetheless, considerable uncertainty remains about the net effects of LNG- fuelled vessels on emissions. At issue are the upstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (mainly CO2 and methane) impacts of LNG, including the energy required to transport and handle the fuel as well as the leakage of natural gas into the atmosphere, which are highly pathway-specific and should be taken into account when a supply chain for Small Scale LNG bunkering is to be set up. As of 2014, the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (AFID) requires Member States to ensure that an appropriate number of refuelling points for LNG are put in place at maritime ports, to enable LNG seagoing ships to circulate throughout the TEN-T Core Network by 31 December 2025. Following DAFI Adoption, Italy has transposed the Directive in its legislative framework (D.lgs. 257/2016), developed the NPF for natural gas deployment and launched the GAINN_IT Initiative, coordinated by the Italian Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure, with the aim of conceiving, defining, prototyping, testing, validating and deploying, in the period 2017-2030, the Italian Network of Infrastructures of Alternative Fuels (LNG in particular) for maritime and surface transport.
|Titolo della tesi:||LNG Small Scale Bunkering Services - La Spezia Port case study: potential scenarios for LNG supply, associated costs, energy consumption, GHGs and air pollutants for different transport modes.|
|Data di discussione:||17-mag-2019|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|