Whereas the 8th edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology listed five Vibrio species with two recognized as human pathogens, over 80 species have now been described (230) (http://www.bacterio. cict.fr/uw/vibrio.html), including at least 12 capable of causing infection in humans. Many reviews have been published on the pathogenic vibrios over the years (11, 109, 156, 166, 175, 178, 191), but with the exception of Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, relatively little is known about the virulence mechanisms they employ. Of the 12 human pathogens, 8 have been directly associated with foods, and these are the subject of this review
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