Pattern classifiers have been widely used in adversarial settings like spam and malware detection, although they have not been originally designed to cope with intelligent attackers that manipulate data at test time to evade detection. While a number of adversary-aware learning algorithms have been proposed, they are computationally demanding and aim to counter specific kinds of adversarial data manipulation. In this work, we overcome these limitations by proposing a multiple classifier system capable of improving security against evasion attacks at test time by learning a decision function that more tightly encloses the legitimate samples in feature space, without significantly compromising accuracy in the absence of attack. Since we combine a set of one-class and two-class classifiers to this end, we name our approach one-and-a-halfclass (1.5C) classification. Our proposal is general and it can be used to improve the security of any classifier against evasion attacks at test time, as shown by the reported experiments on spam and malware detection
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