Introduction: Albeit described since 1948, cardiac herniations still represent an under-recognized clinical entity in the general population, due to their difficult diagnostic detection and to a limited knowledge in clinical practice. This paper aims to provide an updated overview focusing on definition, clinical presentation and diagnostic work-up of cardiac herniations, as well as on further findings concerning prognoses and available therapeutic options. Methods: This narrative review was performed by following the standard methods of the Cochrane Collaboration and the PRISMA statement. A Pubmed search was conducted using the following keywords (in Title and/or Abstract): (“cardiac” OR “heart”) AND (“herniation” OR “hernia”). All available high quality resources containing information on epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, clinical findings, diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies, were included in our search. Results: Causative agents, location and the degree of haemodynamic impairment were found to play a pivotal role in defining the patient's natural history and prognostic outcomes, and in detecting potential associated clinical conditions which may significantly impact on first line decision-making strategy. Conclusions: Cardiac herniations remain a rare and life-threatening pathological injury, whose knowledge is still very limited in clinical practice. Clinicians should be aware of such a clinical entity and of its wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, particularly in high-risk subsets of patients, in order to provide the most appropriate decision-making strategy and timely therapeutic approach.
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|Titolo:||Cardiac herniation: A practical review in the emergency setting|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||01.02 - Recensione in rivista|