In recent years, immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have represented one of the major breakthroughs in advanced non-small cell lung cancer treatment scenario. However, enrollment in registering clinical trials is usually restricted, since frail patients (i.e., elderly, individuals with poor performance status and/or active brain metastases), as well as patients with chronic infections or who take concurrent medications, such as steroids, are routinely excluded. Thus, safety and efficacy of ICIs for these subgroups have not been adequately assessed in clinical trials, although these populations often occur in clinical practice. We reviewed the available data regarding the use of ICIs in these ‘special' populations, including a focus on the issues raised by the administration of immunotherapy in lung cancer patients infected with Sars-Cov-2.
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