Goal and Background. Transport represents 27% of Europe's Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and is the main cause of air pollution in cities. With the global shift towards a low-carbon economy, the EU set forth a lowemission mobility strategy with the aim of reducing the overall emissions in the transport sector. The High V.LO.-City project is part of this overarching strategy and addresses the integration of hydrogen fuel cell (H2FC) buses in the public transport. Methods. In this thesis, the environmental assessment of one H2FC bus and the related refuelling station is carried out using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, taking into account the following phases: (1) bus production, (2) hydrogen production pathways (water electrolysis, chlor-alkali electrolysis, and steam methane reforming), (3) hydrogen consumption during bus operation, and (4) the vehicles' end of life. The potential impacts are evaluated for magnitude and signi cance in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase, using Environmental Footprint (EF) method which is part of the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) method, established by the European Union (EU) in 2013. The calculated fuel economy is around 10.54 KgH2/100Km and the energy demand of a refuelling infrastructure may vary between 6 and 9 KWh/KgH2. Results. The results show that H2FC buses have the potential to reduce emissions during the use phase if renewables resources are used. The expected Global Warming Potential (GWP) bene t is about 85% in comparison to a diesel bus. Additionally, the emissions of the selected patterns of hydrogen production depend on how electricity is produced and on the chemical-based or fossil-based feedstocks used to drive the production process. Conclusions and Outlook. The improvement of the environmental pro le of hydrogen production requires to promote clean electricity sources to supply a low-carbon hydrogen and to sharpen policy focus with regard to life cycle management, and to counter potential setbacks, in particular those related to problem-shifting and to grid improvement.

Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment of the Hydrogen Fuel Cell Buses in the European Context. Evaluation of relevant measures to support low-carbon mobility in the public transport sector

PEDERZOLI, DAVIDE WALTER
2021-05-18

Abstract

Goal and Background. Transport represents 27% of Europe's Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and is the main cause of air pollution in cities. With the global shift towards a low-carbon economy, the EU set forth a lowemission mobility strategy with the aim of reducing the overall emissions in the transport sector. The High V.LO.-City project is part of this overarching strategy and addresses the integration of hydrogen fuel cell (H2FC) buses in the public transport. Methods. In this thesis, the environmental assessment of one H2FC bus and the related refuelling station is carried out using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, taking into account the following phases: (1) bus production, (2) hydrogen production pathways (water electrolysis, chlor-alkali electrolysis, and steam methane reforming), (3) hydrogen consumption during bus operation, and (4) the vehicles' end of life. The potential impacts are evaluated for magnitude and signi cance in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) phase, using Environmental Footprint (EF) method which is part of the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) method, established by the European Union (EU) in 2013. The calculated fuel economy is around 10.54 KgH2/100Km and the energy demand of a refuelling infrastructure may vary between 6 and 9 KWh/KgH2. Results. The results show that H2FC buses have the potential to reduce emissions during the use phase if renewables resources are used. The expected Global Warming Potential (GWP) bene t is about 85% in comparison to a diesel bus. Additionally, the emissions of the selected patterns of hydrogen production depend on how electricity is produced and on the chemical-based or fossil-based feedstocks used to drive the production process. Conclusions and Outlook. The improvement of the environmental pro le of hydrogen production requires to promote clean electricity sources to supply a low-carbon hydrogen and to sharpen policy focus with regard to life cycle management, and to counter potential setbacks, in particular those related to problem-shifting and to grid improvement.
low-carbon mobility; Fuel cell buses; Hydrogen; Life Cycle Assessment; Climate Change Policy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1045894
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