The increased penetration of distributed energy resources and renewables open up issues in power systems as a whole. Chapter 1 discusses these issues, and highlights the literature solutions. The concept of VPP is highlighted, different options are explored, and the use of VPP is motivated. The chapter further discusses different ancillary services, with both technical and market perspectives. It makes a clear demarcation amongst transmission and distribution level VPPs, and their economic and technical aspects. Different components within VPP are also highlighted in this chapter. The models of VPP, based on SGAM, are presented in Chapter 2, with detailed test cases. The models characterize VPP as an aggregator at TSO, VPP as DER-Aggregator/DERMS at DSO-DMS, and VPP as business case for flexibility to DSO-DMS. It includes the VPP actors, their characteristics, and a compact architecture based on SGAM. It further splits VPP participants in different software: MATLAB/Simulink, DIgSILENT, and LabVIEW for defined test cases. These are further elaborated in detail in the next chapters, and all are discussed w.r.t regulatory, technical, and economic aspects. Chapter 3 co-simulates VPP-DERMS (Distributed Energy Resource Management System as a Virtual Power Plant) based customers' DR through LabVIEW. It develops interface to customers' meters for reactive power visibility, and then develops a HMI and recording tool at VPP controller. The performance of the tool is analyzed in the chapter, which is in fact the modeling of Modbus based customers' interaction for reactive power. Chapter 4 co-simulates effects of DER on a distribution grid in DIgSILENT. A distribution grid is modelled in DIgSILENT, and then DERs are added to the network. Node voltages and line loading are analyzed in the absence and presence of unplanned DERs. Then the network is seen from two perspectives – flexibility that can be provided to TSO with STATCOM at transmission node, and flexibility that can be provided to DSO with planned DGs at distribution node. Chapter 5 co-simulates storage model in MATLAB/Simulink. It starts with the techno-economic analysis of potential storage systems, and then to realize the storage model for simulation. The model of selected storage system is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, and then a explicit service test case is developed within VPP-aggregator to analyze the flexibility margin by storage. Next step is the integration of these co-simulators within different service platform levels. The objective of Chapter 6 is to develop an interface amongst co-simulators to simulate the VPP chain. At first step, the co-simulators are realized within tags: wind farm tags are created in DIgSILENT, customers' based tags are built in LabVIEW, and storage tags are located inside MATLAB/Simulink. Then communication amongst the co-interfaces is done by the development of Matrikon OPC server and explorer platform. The master platform is implemented in LabVIEW-RT tool. Then test cases are defined for the validation of platform, which is performed in Chapter 7. Chapter 7 is dedicated to the validation of the formulated VPPs – DERMS, business VPP, and aggregator. DERMS based model is validated within DIgSILENT, by using a portion of the Italian distribution grid. Aggregator based model is validated within DIgSILENT, by using the IEEE 9 bus transmission test model. Business VPP model is validated using IEC 61850 compliant feature of DIgSILENT for the same distribution grid in a translational manner. The validated VPP is used as an application for power system reliability, which is presented in Chapter 8. It describes the conventional schemes for power system protection, and the issues with DER penetration. It then models a VPP, and verifies its functionality for power system protection. Chapter 9 concludes the thesis.

Virtual Power Plant Concepts for Ancillary Market - Demonstration, Development, and Validation

ALI, JIBRAN
2020-05-29

Abstract

The increased penetration of distributed energy resources and renewables open up issues in power systems as a whole. Chapter 1 discusses these issues, and highlights the literature solutions. The concept of VPP is highlighted, different options are explored, and the use of VPP is motivated. The chapter further discusses different ancillary services, with both technical and market perspectives. It makes a clear demarcation amongst transmission and distribution level VPPs, and their economic and technical aspects. Different components within VPP are also highlighted in this chapter. The models of VPP, based on SGAM, are presented in Chapter 2, with detailed test cases. The models characterize VPP as an aggregator at TSO, VPP as DER-Aggregator/DERMS at DSO-DMS, and VPP as business case for flexibility to DSO-DMS. It includes the VPP actors, their characteristics, and a compact architecture based on SGAM. It further splits VPP participants in different software: MATLAB/Simulink, DIgSILENT, and LabVIEW for defined test cases. These are further elaborated in detail in the next chapters, and all are discussed w.r.t regulatory, technical, and economic aspects. Chapter 3 co-simulates VPP-DERMS (Distributed Energy Resource Management System as a Virtual Power Plant) based customers' DR through LabVIEW. It develops interface to customers' meters for reactive power visibility, and then develops a HMI and recording tool at VPP controller. The performance of the tool is analyzed in the chapter, which is in fact the modeling of Modbus based customers' interaction for reactive power. Chapter 4 co-simulates effects of DER on a distribution grid in DIgSILENT. A distribution grid is modelled in DIgSILENT, and then DERs are added to the network. Node voltages and line loading are analyzed in the absence and presence of unplanned DERs. Then the network is seen from two perspectives – flexibility that can be provided to TSO with STATCOM at transmission node, and flexibility that can be provided to DSO with planned DGs at distribution node. Chapter 5 co-simulates storage model in MATLAB/Simulink. It starts with the techno-economic analysis of potential storage systems, and then to realize the storage model for simulation. The model of selected storage system is implemented in MATLAB/Simulink, and then a explicit service test case is developed within VPP-aggregator to analyze the flexibility margin by storage. Next step is the integration of these co-simulators within different service platform levels. The objective of Chapter 6 is to develop an interface amongst co-simulators to simulate the VPP chain. At first step, the co-simulators are realized within tags: wind farm tags are created in DIgSILENT, customers' based tags are built in LabVIEW, and storage tags are located inside MATLAB/Simulink. Then communication amongst the co-interfaces is done by the development of Matrikon OPC server and explorer platform. The master platform is implemented in LabVIEW-RT tool. Then test cases are defined for the validation of platform, which is performed in Chapter 7. Chapter 7 is dedicated to the validation of the formulated VPPs – DERMS, business VPP, and aggregator. DERMS based model is validated within DIgSILENT, by using a portion of the Italian distribution grid. Aggregator based model is validated within DIgSILENT, by using the IEEE 9 bus transmission test model. Business VPP model is validated using IEC 61850 compliant feature of DIgSILENT for the same distribution grid in a translational manner. The validated VPP is used as an application for power system reliability, which is presented in Chapter 8. It describes the conventional schemes for power system protection, and the issues with DER penetration. It then models a VPP, and verifies its functionality for power system protection. Chapter 9 concludes the thesis.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1006270
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