The interest in dietary sugars and polyols has increased considerably in recent years, as they are candidates for many commercial applications in different sectors like food and pharmaceutical industries. This chapter aimed at providing an overview on the xylitol recovery using different approaches. After a brief description of the applications of such an important polyol component in the food and medicine industries along with its physicochemical properties, the traditional ways of providing xylitol, specifically the chemical synthesis, are described and compared with the new biotechnological options. Emphasis has been addressed to the present literature on xylitol recovery assessment, specifically focusing on xylitol recovery by crystallization. The effects of the most influencing factors such as pretreatment, initial xylitol supersaturation value, crystallization temperature as well as solvent on xylitol recovery were discussed. The chapter points out that even if in the last few years xylitol crystallization has drawn more attention, important research efforts are still required to develop downstream technologies able to economically recovery this compound in a very pure form, suitable for commercial purposes.
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