Tissue engineering (TE) is known as a methodology that mimics the physiological microenvironment by combining biology, engineering and materials science to repair or replace damaged tissue. Incorporating the three elements of the tissue engineering triad (cells, biological factors as signals and scaffolds) needs a good scaffolding technique. Additive manufacturing techniques are the most common due to their potential to fabricate organized tissue constructs to repair or replace damaged or diseased human tissues and organs. The scaffold is expected to perform various functions, including the support of cell colonization, migration, growth and differentiation. Further, for their design the physicochemical properties, the morphology and the degradation kinetics need to be considered. External size and shape of the construct are of importance, particularly if it is customized for an individual patient. Besides the physical properties of a scaffold or matrix material (e.g. stiffness, strength, surface chemistry, degradation kinetics), the micro-architecture of the constructs is of great importance for the tissue formation process.
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