Over the years, many researches and studies have been carried out in the international and Italian context aimed at understanding, with different approaches, the birth of the prison and the functions attributed to it. In particular, historians and sociologists have devoted much attention to the analysis of the objectives that have diversified over time and of the real effectiveness of these structures. More recently, with a socio-psychological approach, various aspects, related to the well-being of both the inmates and those who are called upon to perform a control function within these total structures, have also been investigated; in fact, research has highlighted the importance of the role played by correctional officers who daily share a restricted space with inmates for a large number of hours. In Italy, in particular, correctional officers, thanks to Law 395/90, have taken on a more participatory role in the treatment of prisoners, and this aspect has made them decisive in achieving the ultimate goal of prison: the reintegration of the prisoner into society. However, although the law has complexified and enriched the role played by this professional figure, not as much attention has been paid to implement the skills necessary to carry out the new tasks required. In fact, being involved in the treatment of prisoners implies the acquisition of relational and intercultural skills, which do not find their proper place in the training intended for this professional figure. The objectives that this paper sets out to achieve are twofold. A first objective is to return an analysis of the literature related to the birth and functions of the prison that have been changing over the centuries and the psychological aspects related to some of the main figures in the prison system: prison officers and inmates. The second objective is to report, analyze and discuss the data that emerged from three researches carried out in some prison institutions in Northern Italy. The thesis consists of five chapters: the first two constitute the theoretical framework, through which the birth and evolution of the prison and the function played by the correctional officers are traced; the last three, on the other hand, are dedicated to three researches carried out with different methodologies within some penitentiary institutions in Northern Italy. In particular, the first chapter is initially devoted to penitentiary institutions and the different structures and functions that have been attributed to them over time, starting with a socio-historical analysis. Ample space will be devoted to the Italian context, starting with the management of prisons and the functions held by those in charge in the early twentieth century; it will then come to Laws 354/75 and 395/90, currently in force, which respectively introduce regulations in favor of interventions aimed at the social reintegration of prisoners and the establishment of the correctional officers, which is entrusted with the dual task of providing security and actively participating in the re-educational treatment of inmates. Next, the second paragraph of the first chapter will address the issue of overcrowding, a problem encountered both internationally and in the Italian context; the main causes of this critical issue and the effects found both on inmates and on prisoner control and treatment personnel will then be outlined. Finally, the third section will be devoted to the psychological aspects associated with living in prison. The second chapter will be devoted to the analysis of two of the actors in the prison system: correctional officers and inmates. The next three chapters will be focused on results that emerged from three different research conducted in some penitentiary institutions in northern Italy. In particular, the third chapter will focus on the research "Intercultural Sensitivity of the Correctional Officers: Between Life Satisfaction and Burnout," which, through the use of a quantitative methodology, involved 400 correctional officers employed at sixteen penitentiary institutions in three regions of northern Italy. The main objective of the research was to investigate whether there was a significant relationship between cross-cultural sensitivity, workplace stress and perceived life satisfaction. In addition, the results that emerged from the comparison made with some previously conducted research that focused on health professionals will be reported. Then from the analysis of socio-demographic variables, the differences between groups that emerged in relation to the investigated constructs will be reported. Finally, based on the hypotheses, the existence of correlation among the investigated variables will be tested and the factors that most affect life satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and cross-cultural sensitivity will be examined. The last two chapters will focus on the restitution of findings from two research-intervention projects carried out in two penitentiary institutions in a region of northern Italy, with the aim of fostering the development of greater awareness of self and other and tools for conflict transformation, through active sharing and participation, with a view to individual and group empowerment. The fourth chapter will present findings related to the theme of interculturality within prison settings, starting from the experience of training and awareness-raising in community and peer mediation, from an intercultural dialogue perspective. The project presented, "Community and Peer Mediation from an Intercultural Perspective in the Prison Context: the InterMed Project," was aimed at both the staff of the institution and the inmate population. Data were collected through a qualitative methodology. Finally, the fifth chapter will present the results that emerged from an evaluation of a community mediation intervention project carried out in a women's prison setting, "A Women's Community Mediation: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Research-Intervention Project," whose strengths and weaknesses were highlighted. Data were collected through a qualitative methodology.

Intercultura e mediazione comunitaria tra pari nel contesto penitenziario italiano

COPPOLA, ILARIA
2022-08-31

Abstract

Over the years, many researches and studies have been carried out in the international and Italian context aimed at understanding, with different approaches, the birth of the prison and the functions attributed to it. In particular, historians and sociologists have devoted much attention to the analysis of the objectives that have diversified over time and of the real effectiveness of these structures. More recently, with a socio-psychological approach, various aspects, related to the well-being of both the inmates and those who are called upon to perform a control function within these total structures, have also been investigated; in fact, research has highlighted the importance of the role played by correctional officers who daily share a restricted space with inmates for a large number of hours. In Italy, in particular, correctional officers, thanks to Law 395/90, have taken on a more participatory role in the treatment of prisoners, and this aspect has made them decisive in achieving the ultimate goal of prison: the reintegration of the prisoner into society. However, although the law has complexified and enriched the role played by this professional figure, not as much attention has been paid to implement the skills necessary to carry out the new tasks required. In fact, being involved in the treatment of prisoners implies the acquisition of relational and intercultural skills, which do not find their proper place in the training intended for this professional figure. The objectives that this paper sets out to achieve are twofold. A first objective is to return an analysis of the literature related to the birth and functions of the prison that have been changing over the centuries and the psychological aspects related to some of the main figures in the prison system: prison officers and inmates. The second objective is to report, analyze and discuss the data that emerged from three researches carried out in some prison institutions in Northern Italy. The thesis consists of five chapters: the first two constitute the theoretical framework, through which the birth and evolution of the prison and the function played by the correctional officers are traced; the last three, on the other hand, are dedicated to three researches carried out with different methodologies within some penitentiary institutions in Northern Italy. In particular, the first chapter is initially devoted to penitentiary institutions and the different structures and functions that have been attributed to them over time, starting with a socio-historical analysis. Ample space will be devoted to the Italian context, starting with the management of prisons and the functions held by those in charge in the early twentieth century; it will then come to Laws 354/75 and 395/90, currently in force, which respectively introduce regulations in favor of interventions aimed at the social reintegration of prisoners and the establishment of the correctional officers, which is entrusted with the dual task of providing security and actively participating in the re-educational treatment of inmates. Next, the second paragraph of the first chapter will address the issue of overcrowding, a problem encountered both internationally and in the Italian context; the main causes of this critical issue and the effects found both on inmates and on prisoner control and treatment personnel will then be outlined. Finally, the third section will be devoted to the psychological aspects associated with living in prison. The second chapter will be devoted to the analysis of two of the actors in the prison system: correctional officers and inmates. The next three chapters will be focused on results that emerged from three different research conducted in some penitentiary institutions in northern Italy. In particular, the third chapter will focus on the research "Intercultural Sensitivity of the Correctional Officers: Between Life Satisfaction and Burnout," which, through the use of a quantitative methodology, involved 400 correctional officers employed at sixteen penitentiary institutions in three regions of northern Italy. The main objective of the research was to investigate whether there was a significant relationship between cross-cultural sensitivity, workplace stress and perceived life satisfaction. In addition, the results that emerged from the comparison made with some previously conducted research that focused on health professionals will be reported. Then from the analysis of socio-demographic variables, the differences between groups that emerged in relation to the investigated constructs will be reported. Finally, based on the hypotheses, the existence of correlation among the investigated variables will be tested and the factors that most affect life satisfaction, emotional exhaustion and cross-cultural sensitivity will be examined. The last two chapters will focus on the restitution of findings from two research-intervention projects carried out in two penitentiary institutions in a region of northern Italy, with the aim of fostering the development of greater awareness of self and other and tools for conflict transformation, through active sharing and participation, with a view to individual and group empowerment. The fourth chapter will present findings related to the theme of interculturality within prison settings, starting from the experience of training and awareness-raising in community and peer mediation, from an intercultural dialogue perspective. The project presented, "Community and Peer Mediation from an Intercultural Perspective in the Prison Context: the InterMed Project," was aimed at both the staff of the institution and the inmate population. Data were collected through a qualitative methodology. Finally, the fifth chapter will present the results that emerged from an evaluation of a community mediation intervention project carried out in a women's prison setting, "A Women's Community Mediation: Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a Research-Intervention Project," whose strengths and weaknesses were highlighted. Data were collected through a qualitative methodology.
Prison, correctional officers; inmates; intervention-research project; female inmates; Italy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1094234
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