The work with foreigners, and in particular with Unaccompanied Foreign Minors, within the Juvenile Justice services, shows greater or otherwise different complexities, compared to taking care of Italian children and / or accompanied foreign minors, which involve a constant challenge of social workers and a challenge in the construction of paths of social integration. The feeling of failure and frustration that emerges in the social workers with respect to the objective difficulties in taking care of children who are often "invisible" as they are undocumented, with different alias and extremely vulnerable due to their young age, the traumas suffered and the loneliness experienced, is sometimes compensated by successful integration paths, often built on the basis of the "creativity of the social worker", where with a significant adhesion of the minor and a valid network work, it is possible to build innovative and lasting projects. These reflections led the PhD student to start the research work starting from the voice of Unaccompanied Foreign Minors (from now on UAMs) or former UAMs, of the voluntary guardians who have in charge of them and of the social workers of the Juvenile Social Service Office themselves, which allowed the structuring of three parallel and autonomous researches, each with food for thought and enriching operating methods. The thesis work developed starting from theoretical and methodological insights, but also from the practical knowledge of the social service in which the PhD student has been working for over twenty years, which has fostered a critical reflection on the realities explored. The PHD thesis consists of six parts. The first chapter wants to give a historical-institutional framework on the birth of Juvenile Justice in Italy, on its organization and services, also in reference to the work with UAMs. Particular attention is given to the establishment of the Juvenile Court, a body for the protection of minors par excellence. Furthermore, the Juvenile Criminal Procedure is investigated with its guarantees and safeguards against the minor who is seen at the center of the process, co-author of his social reintegration path. Finally, space is given to the Juvenile Justice services, with particular regard to the Social Service Offices for Minors (USSM), which have the competence in every state and degree of the procedure against minors entering the circuit. criminal, but specifically in the external area. The second chapter presents a theoretical framework on UAMs in Europe and in Italy, on their migratory path and on psychological studies related to their condition of vulnerability, marginalization and loneliness. Attention is paid to entering the criminal circuit and taking charge by the Juvenile Justice services, a condition that can lead the minor to build a path of life capable of allowing him autonomy and inclusion. Within this theoretical framework, the first study involving UAMs or former UAMs in charge of the USSM is developed, through the implementation of semi-structured interviews. The third chapter explores from the theoretical point of view the role of voluntary guardians in Europe and in Italy with respect to taking charge of UAMs. Specifically in Italy, the Guarantor Authority for Childhood and Adolescence carries out periodic monitoring of the progress of voluntary protection, in order to create an efficient system of the same. The figure of the voluntary gardian is then framed from a legislative and research point of view, creating the basis for the realization of the second study which focuses on the voluntary guardians who follow UAM who have entered the criminal circuit. The fourth chapter focuses on the social service of the USSM, on the skills of social workers in favor of minors entering the criminal circuit. The work that is carried out with UAMs entering the criminal circuit is specifically analyzed, highlighting the extreme vulnerability and fragility of these minors, who require greater attention to their needs and problems and a redefinition of the aid path to be carried out together, for an adequate escape from the penal circuit. The present study was carried out in collaboration with several Italian USSM that have favored an in-depth study on the taking in charge of UAMs in this specific sector.
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|Titolo della tesi:||La presa in carico dei Minori Stranieri Non Accompagnati (e giovani adulti ex MSNA) all’interno dell’Ufficio di Servizio Sociale per i Minorenni (USSM): dar voce ai MSNA, ai tutori volontari e agli operatori degli USSM|
|Data di discussione:||26-mag-2022|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato|