The first task of the present research is to characterize both experimentally and numerically journal bearings with low radial clearances for rotors in small-scale applications (e.g., micro Gas Turbines); their diameter is in the order of ten millimetres, leading to very small dimensional clearances when the typical relative ones (order of 1/1000) are employed; investigating this particular class of journal bearings under static and dynamic loading conditions represents something unexplored. To this goal, a suitable test rig was designed, and the performance of its bearings were investigated under steady load. For the sake of comparison, numerical simulations of the lubrication were also performed by means of a simplified model. The original test rig adopted is a commercial Rotor Kit (RK), but substantial modifications were carried out in order to allow significant measurements. Indeed, the relative radial clearance of RK4 RK bearings is about 2/100, while it is around 1/1000 in industrial bearings. Therefore, the same original RK bearings are employed in this new test rig, but a new shaft was designed to reduce their original clearance. The new custom shaft allows to study bearing behaviour for different clearances, since it is equipped with interchangeable journals. Experimental data obtained by this test rig are then compared with further results of more sophisticated simulations. They were carried out by means of an in-house developed finite element (FEM) code, suitable for ThermoElasto-HydroDynamic (TEHD) analysis of journal bearings both in static and dynamic conditions. In this work, bearing static performances are studied to assess the reliability of the experimental journal location predictions by comparing them with the ones coming from already validated numerical codes. Such comparisons are presented both for large and small clearance bearings of original and modified RK, respectively. Good agreement is found only for the modified RK equipped with small clearance bearings (relative radial clearance 8/1000), as expected. In comparison with two-dimensional lubrication analysis, three-dimensional simulation improves prediction of journal location and correlation with experimental results. The second main task of the present work is the development and the implementation of a suitable analytical model to correctly capture rolling bearing radial stiffness, particularly nearby the critical speeds of the investigated rotor-bearings system. In this work, such bearing non-linear stiffness lumped parameter model is firstly validated on the commercial RK and then it is applied to both air bladeless turbines (or Tesla turbines) and to an innovative microturbine, in order to assess their global rotodynamic behavior when they are mounted on ball bearings. In order to properly investigate all the issues related to critical speeds and stiffness, an adequate number of experimental tests was performed by exploiting an experimental air Tesla turbine prototype located at TPG experimental facility of the University of Genoa. The correlation between measured flexural critical speeds and their numerical predictions is markedly conditioned by the correct identification of ball bearings dynamic characteristics; in particular, bearings stiffness effect may play a significant role in terms of rotor-bearings system natural frequencies and therefore it must be properly assessed. Indeed, Tesla turbine rotor FE model previously employed for numerical modal analysis relies on rigid bearings assumption and therefore it does not account for bearings stiffness overall contribution, which may become crucial in case of “hard mounting” of rotor-bearings systems. Subsequently, high-speed air Tesla rotor is investigated by means of an enhanced FE model for numerical modal analysis within Ansys® environment, where ball bearings are modelled as non-linear springs whose stiffness is expressed according to the analytic model implemented in Matlab®. Two different numerical FE models are devised for microturbine rotor modelling which respectively rely on beam elements and on three-dimensional solid elements for mechanical system spatial discretization. The obtained results in terms of rotor-bearings system modal analysis exhibit an improvement in experimental-numerical results correlation by relying on such ball bearing stiffness model; moreover, beam-based FE model critical speeds predictions are coherent with experimental evidence and with respect to solid elements model it is characterized by lower computational time and it is more easily interpretable. Thus, such experimentally validated numerical model represents a reliable and easily adaptable tool for highspeed rotating machinery critical speeds prediction in practical industrial application cases. Finally In this work, several signal processing techniques performed on vibro-acoustic signals acquired from a T100 Turbec microturbine (which is furnished with a centrifugal compressor) are illustrated. Research activity goal focuses on the investigation different kinds of system response starting from non-intrusive probes signals like accelerometers and microphones; this is made by means of techniques such as HOSA and Wavelet Transform, developed in Matlab® environment, for early detection of the onset of unstable phenomena in centrifugal compressors. These new and different methods have been applied to the same set of data to get sufficiently independent information useful to synergistically improve knowledge in the diagnostic system. Data were acquired by means of an experimental facility based on a T100 turbine developed by the Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) at the University of Genoa. Sampling rate and sensor placement were carefully taken into account, basing both on the physical phenomena to be observed and on the sensor dynamic characteristics. In this context, it is meant to study microphones and accelerometers signals not from an isolated centrifugal turbomachine installed in a dedicated line, but from a whole compressor placed in a mGT system for energy generation. Indeed, the investigated machine is not operating in standalone mode, but its working point and angular velocity depend on the coupling with several elements. In particular, compressor working point and then its vibro-acoustic signals are expected to convey vibration and sound contributions coming from all the plant components; thus, they are more representative of machine realistic behavior in the energy system.

"Analysis of dynamic responses and instabilities in rotating machinery”

NICCOLINI MARMONT DU HAUT CHAMP, CARLO ALBERTO
2022

Abstract

The first task of the present research is to characterize both experimentally and numerically journal bearings with low radial clearances for rotors in small-scale applications (e.g., micro Gas Turbines); their diameter is in the order of ten millimetres, leading to very small dimensional clearances when the typical relative ones (order of 1/1000) are employed; investigating this particular class of journal bearings under static and dynamic loading conditions represents something unexplored. To this goal, a suitable test rig was designed, and the performance of its bearings were investigated under steady load. For the sake of comparison, numerical simulations of the lubrication were also performed by means of a simplified model. The original test rig adopted is a commercial Rotor Kit (RK), but substantial modifications were carried out in order to allow significant measurements. Indeed, the relative radial clearance of RK4 RK bearings is about 2/100, while it is around 1/1000 in industrial bearings. Therefore, the same original RK bearings are employed in this new test rig, but a new shaft was designed to reduce their original clearance. The new custom shaft allows to study bearing behaviour for different clearances, since it is equipped with interchangeable journals. Experimental data obtained by this test rig are then compared with further results of more sophisticated simulations. They were carried out by means of an in-house developed finite element (FEM) code, suitable for ThermoElasto-HydroDynamic (TEHD) analysis of journal bearings both in static and dynamic conditions. In this work, bearing static performances are studied to assess the reliability of the experimental journal location predictions by comparing them with the ones coming from already validated numerical codes. Such comparisons are presented both for large and small clearance bearings of original and modified RK, respectively. Good agreement is found only for the modified RK equipped with small clearance bearings (relative radial clearance 8/1000), as expected. In comparison with two-dimensional lubrication analysis, three-dimensional simulation improves prediction of journal location and correlation with experimental results. The second main task of the present work is the development and the implementation of a suitable analytical model to correctly capture rolling bearing radial stiffness, particularly nearby the critical speeds of the investigated rotor-bearings system. In this work, such bearing non-linear stiffness lumped parameter model is firstly validated on the commercial RK and then it is applied to both air bladeless turbines (or Tesla turbines) and to an innovative microturbine, in order to assess their global rotodynamic behavior when they are mounted on ball bearings. In order to properly investigate all the issues related to critical speeds and stiffness, an adequate number of experimental tests was performed by exploiting an experimental air Tesla turbine prototype located at TPG experimental facility of the University of Genoa. The correlation between measured flexural critical speeds and their numerical predictions is markedly conditioned by the correct identification of ball bearings dynamic characteristics; in particular, bearings stiffness effect may play a significant role in terms of rotor-bearings system natural frequencies and therefore it must be properly assessed. Indeed, Tesla turbine rotor FE model previously employed for numerical modal analysis relies on rigid bearings assumption and therefore it does not account for bearings stiffness overall contribution, which may become crucial in case of “hard mounting” of rotor-bearings systems. Subsequently, high-speed air Tesla rotor is investigated by means of an enhanced FE model for numerical modal analysis within Ansys® environment, where ball bearings are modelled as non-linear springs whose stiffness is expressed according to the analytic model implemented in Matlab®. Two different numerical FE models are devised for microturbine rotor modelling which respectively rely on beam elements and on three-dimensional solid elements for mechanical system spatial discretization. The obtained results in terms of rotor-bearings system modal analysis exhibit an improvement in experimental-numerical results correlation by relying on such ball bearing stiffness model; moreover, beam-based FE model critical speeds predictions are coherent with experimental evidence and with respect to solid elements model it is characterized by lower computational time and it is more easily interpretable. Thus, such experimentally validated numerical model represents a reliable and easily adaptable tool for highspeed rotating machinery critical speeds prediction in practical industrial application cases. Finally In this work, several signal processing techniques performed on vibro-acoustic signals acquired from a T100 Turbec microturbine (which is furnished with a centrifugal compressor) are illustrated. Research activity goal focuses on the investigation different kinds of system response starting from non-intrusive probes signals like accelerometers and microphones; this is made by means of techniques such as HOSA and Wavelet Transform, developed in Matlab® environment, for early detection of the onset of unstable phenomena in centrifugal compressors. These new and different methods have been applied to the same set of data to get sufficiently independent information useful to synergistically improve knowledge in the diagnostic system. Data were acquired by means of an experimental facility based on a T100 turbine developed by the Thermochemical Power Group (TPG) at the University of Genoa. Sampling rate and sensor placement were carefully taken into account, basing both on the physical phenomena to be observed and on the sensor dynamic characteristics. In this context, it is meant to study microphones and accelerometers signals not from an isolated centrifugal turbomachine installed in a dedicated line, but from a whole compressor placed in a mGT system for energy generation. Indeed, the investigated machine is not operating in standalone mode, but its working point and angular velocity depend on the coupling with several elements. In particular, compressor working point and then its vibro-acoustic signals are expected to convey vibration and sound contributions coming from all the plant components; thus, they are more representative of machine realistic behavior in the energy system.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
phdunige_3779514.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Tesi di dottorato
Dimensione 5.89 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.89 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1080576
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus ND
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact