Mounting evidence suggests measurable residual disease (MRD) assessments are prognostic in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-risk AML encompasses a subset of AML with poor response to therapy and prognosis, with features such as therapy-related AML, an antecedent hematologic disorder, extramedullary disease (in adults), and selected mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities. Historically, few patients with high-risk AML achieved deep and durable remission with conventional chemotherapy; however, newer agents might be more effective in achieving MRD-negative remission. CPX-351 (dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin/cytarabine at a synergistic ratio) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 36–64% across retrospective studies in adults with newly diagnosed high-risk AML and 84% in pediatric patients with first-relapse AML. Venetoclax (BCL2 inhibitor) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 33–53% in combination with hypomethylating agents for high-risk subgroups in studies of older adults with newly diagnosed AML who were ineligible for intensive therapy and 65% in combination with chemotherapy in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory AML. However, there is no consensus on optimal MRD methodology in AML, and the use of different techniques, sample sources, sensitivity thresholds, and the timing of assessments limit comparisons across studies. Robust MRD analyses are needed in future clinical studies, and MRD monitoring should become a routine aspect of AML management.

Measurable Residual Disease in High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Lemoli R. M.;
2022

Abstract

Mounting evidence suggests measurable residual disease (MRD) assessments are prognostic in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-risk AML encompasses a subset of AML with poor response to therapy and prognosis, with features such as therapy-related AML, an antecedent hematologic disorder, extramedullary disease (in adults), and selected mutations and cytogenetic abnormalities. Historically, few patients with high-risk AML achieved deep and durable remission with conventional chemotherapy; however, newer agents might be more effective in achieving MRD-negative remission. CPX-351 (dual-drug liposomal encapsulation of daunorubicin/cytarabine at a synergistic ratio) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 36–64% across retrospective studies in adults with newly diagnosed high-risk AML and 84% in pediatric patients with first-relapse AML. Venetoclax (BCL2 inhibitor) demonstrated MRD-negativity rates of 33–53% in combination with hypomethylating agents for high-risk subgroups in studies of older adults with newly diagnosed AML who were ineligible for intensive therapy and 65% in combination with chemotherapy in pediatric patients with relapsed/refractory AML. However, there is no consensus on optimal MRD methodology in AML, and the use of different techniques, sample sources, sensitivity thresholds, and the timing of assessments limit comparisons across studies. Robust MRD analyses are needed in future clinical studies, and MRD monitoring should become a routine aspect of AML management.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1078735
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