Objective: To show different approaches for sexual-sparing robot assisted radical cystectomy in women. Materials And Methods: Radical cystectomy (RC) is a mainstay treatment for localized muscle invasive bladder cancer and high-risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer not responding to adequate endovesical therapy.1 In women traditionally RC is performed with hystero-adnexectomy and resection of the anterior vaginal wall, but this technique often brings sexual disorders. With time, vaginal sparing techniques have been developed to improve functional outcomes in women motivated to preserve their sexual function.2-4 The indications for vaginal-sparing RC are absence of tumor in bladder neck or urethra and no sign of infiltration of anterior vaginal wall and parametria at preoperative staging. Results: Procedure steps as follows. Step 1: Bilateral adnexectomy and ureteral isolation until their distal portion. Step 2: Vesico-vaginal dissection. Step 3: Bilateral pelvic and common iliac node dissection. Step 4: Ureteral clamping and section. Step5: Posterolateral bladder pedicle dissection. Step 6: Anterior dissection of the bladder towards the urethra. In women, this should be achieved without injuring the Santorini plexus and innervation of the clitoris. Step 7: Bladder neck identification and urethral dissection. Cystectomy is completed. Step 8: En bloc hystero-adnexectomy with anterior vaginal wall preservation; the vaginal pedicles are spared too. Step 9: Specimen extraction from the vagina and vaginal suture.It is also possible to perform a fully sexual-sparing robotic RC by following the vesico-vaginal plan without dissecting the vaginal dome and leaving internal genitalia intact. This technique is typically carried out in case of young women with no pathological uterine and ovarian findings.Vesico-vaginal plan can also be developed after opening the vaginal dome. This approach gives the possibility to subsequently dissect the cervix, to identify and spare the vaginal pedicles and to perform an “en bloc” radical cystectomy, with preservation of the anterior vaginal wall.In case of neobladder, diversion is carried out intracorporeally following the principles of the Saint Augustin neobladder.5 Conclusions: Robot assisted anterior pelvectomy with anterior vaginal wall preservation is a feasible and mini-invasive technique. For a satisfying functional result, it is crucial to preserve the vaginal neurovascular pedicles. This sexual-sparing approach must be carried out after a correct patient selection: women motivated to preserve their sexual function and ideally in the neobladder setting, when a posterior support for the urinary diversion is needed. Absence of tumor in bladder neck and urethra at magnetic resonance imaging could help patient selection.

Sexual-Sparing Robot Assisted Radical Cystectomy in Female: A Step-By-Step Guide

Terrone C.;
2021

Abstract

Objective: To show different approaches for sexual-sparing robot assisted radical cystectomy in women. Materials And Methods: Radical cystectomy (RC) is a mainstay treatment for localized muscle invasive bladder cancer and high-risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer not responding to adequate endovesical therapy.1 In women traditionally RC is performed with hystero-adnexectomy and resection of the anterior vaginal wall, but this technique often brings sexual disorders. With time, vaginal sparing techniques have been developed to improve functional outcomes in women motivated to preserve their sexual function.2-4 The indications for vaginal-sparing RC are absence of tumor in bladder neck or urethra and no sign of infiltration of anterior vaginal wall and parametria at preoperative staging. Results: Procedure steps as follows. Step 1: Bilateral adnexectomy and ureteral isolation until their distal portion. Step 2: Vesico-vaginal dissection. Step 3: Bilateral pelvic and common iliac node dissection. Step 4: Ureteral clamping and section. Step5: Posterolateral bladder pedicle dissection. Step 6: Anterior dissection of the bladder towards the urethra. In women, this should be achieved without injuring the Santorini plexus and innervation of the clitoris. Step 7: Bladder neck identification and urethral dissection. Cystectomy is completed. Step 8: En bloc hystero-adnexectomy with anterior vaginal wall preservation; the vaginal pedicles are spared too. Step 9: Specimen extraction from the vagina and vaginal suture.It is also possible to perform a fully sexual-sparing robotic RC by following the vesico-vaginal plan without dissecting the vaginal dome and leaving internal genitalia intact. This technique is typically carried out in case of young women with no pathological uterine and ovarian findings.Vesico-vaginal plan can also be developed after opening the vaginal dome. This approach gives the possibility to subsequently dissect the cervix, to identify and spare the vaginal pedicles and to perform an “en bloc” radical cystectomy, with preservation of the anterior vaginal wall.In case of neobladder, diversion is carried out intracorporeally following the principles of the Saint Augustin neobladder.5 Conclusions: Robot assisted anterior pelvectomy with anterior vaginal wall preservation is a feasible and mini-invasive technique. For a satisfying functional result, it is crucial to preserve the vaginal neurovascular pedicles. This sexual-sparing approach must be carried out after a correct patient selection: women motivated to preserve their sexual function and ideally in the neobladder setting, when a posterior support for the urinary diversion is needed. Absence of tumor in bladder neck and urethra at magnetic resonance imaging could help patient selection.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11567/1070714
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