A coiled shell is the most evident feature of the typical Bauplan of a gastropod mollusc. However, at least 54 families independently evolved an apparently simplified shell morphology: the limpet. Species with this largely uncoiled, depressed shell morphology occur in almost every aquatic habitat and are associated to a number of different lifestyles and diets. The marine gastropod family Capulidae includes 18 recognised genera, the large majority of which are coiled, but with a number of limpet-like species. Capulid shell plasticity is also associated to a broad range of feeding ecologies, from obligate suspension feeders to kleptoparasites. To investigate the evolution of the limpet-like shell in the family Capulidae we performed an ancestral state reconstruction analysis on a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree (COI, 16S, and ITS2) including 16 species representing a good deal of its morphological diversity. Our results identified at least three capulid lineages that independently evolved limpet-like shells, suggesting that a recurrent limpetization process characterizes this family. One of the limpet-like genera was undescribed and was here named Cryocapulus n. gen. We suggest that capulids evolved from a coiled suspension feeder lineage and that the shift to kleptoparasitism, which occurred in the family ancestor, may have represented a strategy to save energy through the exploitation of the water current produced by the host. Probably the major drivers of shell evolution in capulids are related to their ecology, most of them being kleptoparasites, include the shape and the kind of host substrate, and lead to the repeated acquisition of a limpet-like shape.

Becoming a limpet: An ‘intermittent limpetization’ process driven by host features in the kleptoparasitic gastropod family Capulidae

Schiaparelli S.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

A coiled shell is the most evident feature of the typical Bauplan of a gastropod mollusc. However, at least 54 families independently evolved an apparently simplified shell morphology: the limpet. Species with this largely uncoiled, depressed shell morphology occur in almost every aquatic habitat and are associated to a number of different lifestyles and diets. The marine gastropod family Capulidae includes 18 recognised genera, the large majority of which are coiled, but with a number of limpet-like species. Capulid shell plasticity is also associated to a broad range of feeding ecologies, from obligate suspension feeders to kleptoparasites. To investigate the evolution of the limpet-like shell in the family Capulidae we performed an ancestral state reconstruction analysis on a time-calibrated phylogenetic tree (COI, 16S, and ITS2) including 16 species representing a good deal of its morphological diversity. Our results identified at least three capulid lineages that independently evolved limpet-like shells, suggesting that a recurrent limpetization process characterizes this family. One of the limpet-like genera was undescribed and was here named Cryocapulus n. gen. We suggest that capulids evolved from a coiled suspension feeder lineage and that the shift to kleptoparasitism, which occurred in the family ancestor, may have represented a strategy to save energy through the exploitation of the water current produced by the host. Probably the major drivers of shell evolution in capulids are related to their ecology, most of them being kleptoparasites, include the shape and the kind of host substrate, and lead to the repeated acquisition of a limpet-like shape.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11567/1068526
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