Germinal matrix-intraventricular haemorrhage (GMH-IVH), periventricular haemorrhagic infarction (PHI) and its complication, post-haemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD), are still common neonatal morbidities in preterm infants that are highly associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcome. Typical cranial ultrasound (CUS) findings of GMH-IVH, PHI and PHVD, their anatomical substrates and underlying mechanisms are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, we propose a detailed descriptive classification of GMH-IVH and PHI that may improve quality of CUS reporting and prediction of outcome in infants suffering from GMH-IVH/PHI.
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